Gujarat Board GSEB Class 11 English Textbook Solutions Writing Skills Sub-titling Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.
Sub-titling GSEB Std 11 English Grammar
According to Free Dictionary, Sub-title is a secondary, usually explanatory title. It is also called ‘captioning’. Sub-titles convey the main idea or theme of each section of a long piece of writing. It helps the reader to know at a glance the sub-topics that are being addressed. Giving suitable sub-titles helps break the monitory of reading long passages.
Here below some newspaper articles are given as samples:
No Fairy Tale This Time
After a disappointing start, Ml threatened to make another comeback but lost the key moments
It was a season of hope. And defending champions Mumbai Indians kept hoping in vain, till the very end of their title defence, in the league stage itself. Match after match, they hoped for Rohit Sharma to fire. But the captain had his worst season with the bat in 11 years of the Indian Premier League. They hoped for Kieron Pollard to come good. The Trinidadian, who no longer bowls, also had his worst season with the bat ever in the IPL.
MI lost their opening match by one wicket off the penultimate ball. Can’t possibly get narrower than that, they hoped. They lost their second match by one wicket too. Off the last ball. ‘We’re playing good cricket, we have been unlucky, we’ll get over the line sooner than later.’ they hoped. They lost the third one too, off the last ball again.
One win in first six
Can only go up after this disastrous start, they hoped. After six matches, nearly halfway into the league stage, they had one win to show. That sixth game was also their most embarrassing moment; they had a target of 118
to chase at their home ground Wankhede Stadium. They were bowled out for 87.
Season slipping away. Every game is potentially the last if it ended in defeat. Familiar territory alert, here we come, they hoped. Having to win at least five of their last six games, MI gave it a pretty good Shot, winning four, and coming within two scoring shorts of winning their last match. That would have put them in to the playoffs. But Ben Cutting having fanned Mi’s fading hopes with a defiant 37, picked out the man in the deep off a half-tracker.
Lost close encounters
For a team that prides itself on winning when it desperately needs to, and not without justification, MI just could not get over the line this season, on multiple occasions.
The first two losses, unfortunate and gutting as they were, set the tone for key moments that followed. Invariably, in tight situations, MI ended up on the losing side, utterly unlike their reputation for winning them.
It didn’t help that they lost six of seven tosses at Wankhede Stadium, and also lost the only match in which Rohit won the toss at home.
Five of their six victories were comfortable ones when most things clicked on the night. They lost four close games, and only won one. After the successive heartbreaks at the start of the season, K Gowtham of Rajasthan Royals snatched victory from them with an unbeaten 33 off only 11 balls at the fag end of a wobbly chase in Jaipur. It is usually MI who are performing such escape acts out of nowhere.
They did come up with one such performance to remain alive in the tournament in their penultimate match, against Kings XI Punjab at home. With KL Rahul reverse-paddling seamers for boundaries in a commanding 94 off 60, Jasprit Bumrah conjured two tight overs at the death to set up a three-run getaway.
With 17 wickets at an economy rate of 6.89, Bumrah was up there, but the overseas fast bowler cost MI at crucial stages, be it Mustafizur Rahman, Mitchell McClenaghan or Cutting. Batsmen played Mustafizur’s cutters better this year, and even in his new role bowling upfront, McClenaghan tended to leak runs, as well as take wickets, as is his wont.
The all-rounder Cutting averaged fewer than two overs per match, although expensive and batted a bit too low even as MI kept hoping for Pollard to click. JP Dummy’s case was even more curious; he replaced Pollard for a few games, hardly bowled, and barely got a bat. And even if you take 18 wickets, like Hardik Pandya did, going for nine runs an over nullifies a big chunk of your impact.
Surya, Mayank impress
The shining light was Suryakumar Yadav. Promoted to open the innings, which also involved the skipper dropping to the middle order, he had his best IPL by far. He was Mi’s leading run-getter by some distance, with 512 at a strike- rate of 133.33, and formed a productive partnership with Evin Lewis (382 runs, SR 138.41).
Rookie leg-spinner Mayank Markande was the find of the season for MI. He started with a bang, befuddling even MS Dhoni and keeping Virat Kohli subdued, but went for a few as the season progressed.
Mi’s campaign threatened to do the reverse, but fairy tale comebacks do not happen everytime.
Amdavadis lead the pack in going solar
Figures from Gujarat Energy Development Agency show that the city has the maximum number of takers for the State Government’s ambitious solar rooftop project
Raj Patel, a businessman and resident of Mithakhali crossroads in Ahmedabad was impressed with the benefits his friend was reaping by installing a solar power generator on his rooftop. He decided to give it a go. After some research, he installed a 5 kW system on his rooftop. “My electricity bill has already reduced by 80 %,” Patel beams.
He is among the growing breed of Amdavadis who are switching to alternate energy to power their homes.
When it comes to adapting to renewable energy sources like solar power, Gujarat is definitely walking the talk! As per figures shared by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), of the 353 MW of solar energy projects commissioned in the country last year, one-third (117.4 MW) were in Gujarat. These include both subsidised and non-subsidised projects.
Rooftop Project a major draw
The solar rooftop project initiated by the Gujarat Energy Development Agency (GEDA) in November 2016 was among the major initiatives rolled out by the state government to promote solar energy.
The scheme offers total 44 per cent subsidy for installation of solar power generation units on rooftops, including 30 per cent by MNRE and 14.4 per cent by the State government.
GEDA figures show that in the past two years Ahmedabad has led the way in the commissioning of solar rooftop projects. Up to March 31, 2018, as many as 4,037 systems have been installed in Ahmedabad, with a capacity of 16,598.939 kW energy. Vadodara has 3652 such systems with 11,134.29 kW capacity while Surat has 3,559 systems with capacity of 11,008.84 kW. In Rajkot, a total of 1,778 solar power systems with 4601.77 kW capacity have been installed. Earlier one such system would cost f 69,000; however, prices have gone down this year.
Plan to revise prices of solar power systems
“In 2017-18, a total of 18,794 residential solar rooftop systems with capacity of close to 59,071 MW were commissioned in the state. We have a cap of ₹20,000 wherein the state government offers ₹ 10,000 per kW up to 2 kW on a solar power generating unit.
We will be issuing tenders afresh this year to take on vendors and decide new price for solar power systems for this year after their prices have reduced. The central government too will fix a price for the same,” said S. Chhakchhuak, IAS, director of GEDA.
“In 2016-17, as many as 844 systems were commissioned with capacity of 1.6 MW 17”, said GEDA officials.
Simplifying the benefits of solar power generation system, S.B. Patil, deputy director (I/C), GEDA, said, “On an average, a four-member family uses 2.5 to 3 units daily; however 1 kW solar energy system can produce 3.5 – 4 units per day which is more than enough for the family’s power needs. If you install a solar power generation system, all gadgets can be powered by it.”
He added that the average pool purchase cost is ₹ 3.24 per unit of electricity which will be returned if unused. “Even if electricity rates change in Gujarat, users of solar power will benefit nevertheless. Payback time for the money you invest in the system is not more than four years.” said Patil. The agency currently has 110 vendors. With cost of solar power generation system reducing, it plans to introduce fresh pricing and also bring in vendors afresh, officials added.
Interestingly, while industrial consumers were 274 generating 35022.69 kW, commercial were 240 generating 5013.77 kW energy and units used in government buildings were 388 generating 10131.29 kW even as all of them were not covered under any subsidy.
‘Solar energy has made a big difference
Chandlodia resident Pankaj Gohel (66) who is a textile entrepreneur was forced to opt for ‘alternative’ energy as his joint family of 10 members incurred huge electricity bills. While return on investment in solar energy takes 4 years, Gohel has already started reaping the benefits.
“Power consumption in our family was high, resulting in huge bills. So I decided to opt for government subsidy and embraced solar power this February. The process is lengthy and took three months. However, it eventually ended well for me as I actually got f 850 credited in the March – April bill,” he said.
Gujarat chalking up Divyang policy State to give 5 per cent reservation to Divyangs in development schemes
To ensure financial inclusion of differently-abled, new policy proposes benefits like increased reservation in educational institutes, govt, jobs, etc.
To bring economic parity to people with disabilities in the State, the Gujarat government has included 5 per cent reservation in poverty alleviation and development schemes in its new ‘Divyang Policy’. Another unique facet of the policy is the proposed scheme on ‘Independent Community Living for Persons with Disabilities which will encourage Divyangs to live with their families instead of specialised institutions.
Gujarat is likely to become the first state to bring a policy for the differently-abled, 18 months after the passage of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill -2016.
A 21 member working group consisting of government officials, NGOs and disability experts worked on the policy draft for three months. A meeting of CM Vijay Rupani with 22 secretaries of State took place last week. Sources aver that Rupani has given in principle approval of the policy.
The policy proposes benefits like increased reservation in higher education and government jobs. The government is expected to earmark 5 % of funds and give reservation in three categories: allotment of agricultural land and housing in all relevant schemes; in all poverty alleviation and developmental schemes; and in allotment of land on concessional rate. The land will be used to promote housing, shelter, setting up of occupation, business, enterprise, recreation and production centres.
Reservation will be given on priority to women with benchmark disabilities.
The government will also earmark 5 % of total allocation under initiatives for persons with benchmark disabilities through departments of education, health and family welfare, rural development, Panchayati raj, tribal development, urban development, social justice and empowerment.
Independent Community Living:
The Department of Social Defence will allocate 25 % of its budget for the proposed ‘Independent Community Living for Persons with Disabilities’ scheme. “This has been designed to allow Divyangs to live with their families in a normal environment rather than in institutions of mental health, NGOs or institutions providing special care. This scheme will protect their independence and help them join the mainstream,”said Akhil Paul, Founder-Director of Sense International India.
Bhushan Punani, founder and executive secretary of Blind People’s Association who is part of the working group, said, “Three departments namely education, social justice, labour and employment departments have already issued relevant notifications to integrate the Divyang policy into their working. We have clubbed five Acts namely the RTE Act, National Trust Act-1999, Rehabilitation Council of India Act – 92 and 2000, Employment Act of Gujarat and several policies into’ this policy. Government secretaries from all state departments have also been given workshops on the aspects of the Divyang policy.”
Kamal Dayani, principal secretary of Social Justice and Empowerment Department, said, “The policy closely mirrors the Disabilities Bill 2016. Other benefits in the policy include ramps in public buildings (government and private) to ensure accessibility, 4 % reservation in government jobs and 5 % reservation in higher education and compulsory 5 % allocation in various developmental schemes. A state Advisory Board and district level committees will also be set up” An assessment board to certify persons with High Support Needs who are persons who have more than 40 % disability through the state legal department is also proposed.
Lack of accessibility
Kanubhai Tailor, Padmashree awardee and founder of Disable Welfare Trust of India said, “This policy will benefit more than 5 lakh Divyangs in the State. The major issues we face are lack of ramps at police stations, courts, schools and colleges. My belief is that forming an apex body for Divyangs will ensure that our accessibility is not compromised anywhere”
Tarannum Ali, a professional who works at a private firm in the city, said, “I have to carry my Physically Handicapped (PH) certificate all the time because there is lack of awareness among people for my needs. Accessibility is a major issue that I face. Sixty per cent of disabled people are not aware of their rights as per the Disabilities Bill 2016. The state government will hopefully work to set this right.”
Winds Of Change
After a series of losses in close encounters, Gujarat rings in changes at grass-root level.
After years of near-misses, Gujarat cricket’s crowning glory came in 2016-17 season when they became Ranji Trophy champions for the first time. Unsuspecting Gujarat became the only team in the country to be crowned domestic champions in all three formats of the game.
However, the next season was more of a reality check as the mantle of champions weighed heavy on their shoulders as they bowed out at the quarter-final stages of the tournament. But what rang the alarm bells were the performances of the youth teams.
“We lost a couple of close matches on the fourth day of the ties. These were the games that we should have finished but somehow we crumbled on the final day,” an official associated with underage teams told Mirror.
Following yet another season of near-misses, the coaches decided to sit down and look for answers. “There have been many close matches especially in the last season (2016-17). And I am not talking about Ranji Trophy but throughout the BCCI season. Especially, in the age group there were matches that we should have won but we lost,”
Gujarat Cricket Association chief coach Vijay Patel admitted. “AH’ the coaches decided to sit down for a brainstorming session. By winning the Ranji Trophy we had already raised the bar and now we have to deliver consistently,” the veteran coach added.
It was during the brainstorming sessions that the coaches realised the problem lay at the bottom-at the grassroots level. “Most of the matches that we lost were because of our performance on the fourth day of the ties. The coaches pointed this out as we realised that the problem lay at the grassroots level where we don’t play four-day cricket.
Our boys looked clueless when it came to handling the situation on the last day of the match,” Patel said. There is no cure without some painful remedial measures. In this case, it was about challenging the established conventions. “We came up with the idea that there is an
2009- 10 CK Nayudu (U-22)
2010- 11 Cooch Behar (U-19)
2010-11 Triangular Series – Nairobi
2012-13 Ramakant Desai Zonal
2014- 15 Syed Mushtaq Ali
(T – 20)
2015- 16 Vijay Hazare Trophy
2016- 17 Ranji Trophy
2017- 18 Under-23 Zonal
immediate need to change the system at the grassroots level, “Patel said, adding, “In fact we have been pondering over the idea after our success with the talent hunt programme two seasons ago where we found out many young talents who had never played district level cricket.”
The coaches devised a roadmap where the district associations were asked to conduct three-day matches and each player given a chance of at least two matches (four innings) to prove themselves. The district association then sent the names of their top performers along with their results, which is backed by the copies of the score sheets.
After going through exhaustive data, the coaches, along with selectors, selected a pool of 120 senior and under-23 players and 90 under – 19 players. The players were further divided into eight combined teams of senior and under-23 players as well as six under-19 players. The concept of district cricket got a new twist much to discontent of the people opposed to change.
“Of course, change is always resisted. But people quickly came on board when they realised the bigger picture as the top management of state association sought results,” Patel smiled.
In the revamped elite district, the teams will be playing four-day matches across various centres. With each player getting at least two matches (four innings) to impress the selectors.
“I cannot predict the future. But I can say that we got many unheard names. The process is still on to further narrow down the names. But I am confident that it will help us to create a backup at the top,” Patel said, before summing up, “Something that we badly missed in our last Ranji Trophy campaign.”
Textbook Activity Pg No. 101
Notice the italicised sentence placed at the top of the article (T. B. Pg 99) which tells us at a glance what the article is about.
Note: Students are recommended to read and notice on their own.
Divide the article into four sections based on the shifts in the sub-topics and give a suitable sub-heading for each section. One has been done for you in the article as an example.
I. The first sub-topic has been given in the article. The other three are given below.
II. Ineffective policies for the basic amenities of life.
Post-liberalisation policies have tended to largely disregard other key factors that affect the quality of life in cities and towns; poverty, lack of sanitation, water shortages, gross undersupply of affordable housing, and traffic chaos generated by automobile dependence, in turn, created by neglect of public transport.
In the absence of a hygienic environment and safe water supply, chronic water-borne diseases such as cholera and other communicable diseases continue to stalk the poor in the biggest cities. It must be sobering to the affluent layers of the population that nearly 14 million Indian households (forming 26 per cent of the total) in the urban areas do not have a latrine within the house, as per the Census of India-2001; some 14 per cent have only rudimentary ‘pit’ facilities.
The number of households without a drainage connection stands at 11.8 million (representing 22.1 per cent of households). Migration to cities continues and infrastructure to treat sewage is grossly inadequate to meet the demand even where it exists. It is unlikely that the quality of the urban environment can be dramatically improved therefore if such fundamental questions remain unresolved.
III. Frequent road accidents
Urban transport receives scant attention from policymakers. Policy distortions have led to rising automobile dependency, higher safety risks for road users, and land use plans that are based not on the needs of people, but primarily designed to facilitate use of private motorised vehicles. It comes as no surprise therefore that pedestrians and bicycle riders, who form 30 to 70 per cent of peak-hour track in most urban centres, also make up a large proportion of fatalities in road accidents.
A paper prepared by the Transport Research and Injury Prevention Programme (TRIPP) of the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, says pedestrian fatalities in Mumbai and Delhi were nearly 78 per cent and 53 per cent of the total, according to recent data, compared to 13 per cent and 12 per cent in Germany and the United States.
Such alarming death rates and an equally high injury rate – should persuade policymakers to revisit their urban planning strategies and correct the distortions. But many cities such as Chennai have actually done the reverse – reduced footpaths and areas for pedestrian use to facilitate unrestricted use of motorised vehicles.
IV. Innovative urban plans adopted in Curitiba.
The practice in progressive world cities has been different. Curitiba in Brazil, which has attracted global attention for innovative urban plans using low-cost technologies, has done everything that Indian policymakers would dread to do.
Starting in the 1970s, this provincial centre with the highest per capita ownership of cars in Brazil (other than the capital) at the time, banned automobiles from many crowded areas in favour of pedestrians, built an internationally acknowledged bus system that reduced household commuting expenditure to below the national average, and created new housing areas that were provided transport links in a planned manner.
Some of the prestigious land development in the city, including a new Opera House, came up in abandoned sites such as quarries. The bus-way system cut riding time by a third, Scientific American noted in a review in the mid-1990s, by providing for advance ticketing, specially designed boarding areas with wider doors for entry/exit and dedicated lanes for faster transit. In another low-cost initiative, Curitiba managed floods with a dedication that Mumbai, Bengaluru, and Chennai can only marvel at.
The city created large artificial lakes in suitable places that filled up in the monsoon, avoiding flooding of residential areas. In the summer, these lakes turned into parks to provide recreational spaces State administrations and urban planning bodies in India follow policies that, ironically, allow filling of existing wetlands by real estate lobbies, leading to flooding. The residents then demand expensive new stormwater drains.
Examples such as Curitiba show that inclusive development models for urban renewal are workable. If only the state and local governments can be persuaded to adopt a rights-based approach to affordable housing, sanitation, water supply, mobility and a clean environment, instead of a market-oriented model that lays excessive emphasis on recovery of costs incurred by profit-oriented private sector service provision. Support from a progressive middle class and trade unions is equally critical to bring about genuine urban renewal.
Look for pictures in newspapers and magazines that depict the urban civic problems discussed in the text. Cut them out and pin them to the text at appropriate places
Note: Students are recommended to answer this question on their own.