Gujarat Board GSEB Class 12 English Textbook Solutions Writing Skills Essay Writing Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.
Essay Writing GSEB Std 12 English Grammar
Introduction to Essay Writing:
An essay is a written composition expressing one’s personal opinion or ideas on a topic.
An essay comprises three parts :
- The Introduction,
- The Body and
- The Conclusion.
1. The Introduction: This should be brief and interesting. It could be a quotation, a definition or an explanation of the title. Sometimes it could begin with a general remark or a short illustration.
2. The Body: This is the main part of the essay. It consists of facts, illustrations, reflections of the writer on the given subject. Each point should start with a fresh paragraph and the paragraphs should be linked, or closely related to each other so that the essay forms a well-organized and balanced piece of composition.
3. The Conclusion: The ending like the beginning, should be short and striking and should come naturally. Never end an essay abruptly. The ending could be a simple sentence, a short summary of the ideas contained in the body, a quotation or a rhetorical question.
Some useful hints on essay writing:
- Do not begin writing at once. Think about the topic.
- Jot down your ideas.
- Select your ideas carefully.
- Arrange your ideas in a logical sequence.
- Divide your essay into paragraphs. A school essay should be of four to five paragraphs.
- Divide the essay into Introduction, Body and Conclusion.
- Use simple words and short sentences.
- Clarity and brevity should be strictly adhered to.
- Make it interesting, introduce humour wherever possible.
- Revise what you have written. Correct all mistakes such as of spellings, capital letters, grammar, punctuations, etc.
Types of Essays:
- Descriptive Essays
- Narrative Essays
- Reflective Essays
- Argumentative Essays
1. Descriptive Essays consist of a description of some person, place or thing such as –
- Animals, plants, fruits, minerals, metals, etc. (such as The Lion, The Coconut Tree, etc.)
- Towns, ports, ships, buildings, monuments, etc. (Delhi, The Taj Mahal, National Museum, Zoo, etc.)
- Aspects and Phenomena of Nature (Volcanoes, Monsoon, Mountain-scenery, etc.)
- Manufactured Articles (Motor cars, Television, Aeroplanes, etc.)
- Character Sketches (Postman, Bus-driver)
- Description of your Favourite Book ‘
2. Narrative Essays consist of narrating some events such as –
- Incidents (A Street Quarrel, A Festival, etc.)
- An Accident or A Natural Disaster (A Flood, A House on Fire, A Storm, An Earthquake, etc.)
- A Journey or A Voyage
- A Trip or A Walk
- A Visit to a Place of Interest
- A Story
3. Reflective Essay is a reflection on
- Institutions, industries, occupations, etc.(Press, Cottage industries, Gardening, Photography)
- Scientific topics (Wireless Telegraphy, Radio, Cinema, etc.)
- Literary topics (Appreciation of an Author subject like – or a Book)
- Quotations or Sayings (‘Time is Money’, ‘Honesty is the Best Policy’, etc.)
4. Argumentative Essay is an essay consisting of an argument on some subject of topical importance.
Note: At the end of the specimens, some essays for self-practice are given with guiding points. But in the examination, the guiding points are not given. Here we have given for your actual practice.
Specimens of Essays
Write an essay on the following in about 250 words :
Books-Our Best Friends OR Pleasures of Reading
Points: utility of books – treasures of knowledge – written in every sphere – for all age groups – books to gain knowledge, pleasure, peace – today e-books – net a threat to books – reading – government and non¬government organisations should promote awareness – campaigns, libraries, etc.
It goes without saying that books are our best friends. They are our never failing companions. They stand by us in our weal and woe. As Mahatma Gandhi said when I am in distress, I go to the lap of mother Gita to get solace. By mother Gita, he means Bhagavad Gita, the great mythological book in which Lord Krishna advised Arjuna to take up arms and fight the battle against the Kauravas.
All the great books of the world have been useful to us. They have done us great good in the form of changing our attitude towards life. They have cheered us. They have helped us. They have been instrumental in our progress.
Now books are available in great numbers. They are as many as the subjects are. Books can be had on every branch of knowledge, whether it is science or art or agriculture or psychology, the books are varied and plenty. Many books are meant for serious reading. They are ready for examination purpose. They are gone through for success in life. Some are read for recreation and entertainment.
Some are for casual or light reading. Science and technology have advanced a lot. More and more knowledge is being added every day. There are books through which your hunger for knowledge can best be satisfied.
These printed words, bound in the form of books, can best guide you, advise you and lead you to your career destinations. It is for you to choose good books.
Their choice like the choice of good friends should be wise and judicious. Do not be in a great haste in the matter of choosing books. Meet the masterminds of the world in the cosiness of your drawing¬room. They are there to give you a word of advice, a word of hope and cheer and a word which can change the very course of your life. Read as many books as you can, chew some and digest a few.
With the introduction of e-books, the craze of reading has weakened. Government and non¬government organisations should put in their best efforts to promote reading. They can bring awareness by launching campaigns, introducing mobile libraries, etc.
A Morning Walk
Points: morning walk to start a happy, healthy day – peaceful and pleasant atmos¬phere – more oxygen for lungs – exercise – energising – other advantages – emerging good thoughts – strengthening body and mind
‘Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise’. It is said ‘The early bird catches the worm.’ Early in the morning, the atmosphere is calm and quiet. Serenity reigns everywhere. There is no din and noise. There is no dirt and dust. There are no traffic hold-ups. The roads are lonely. The hooting of the factory sirens is not heard. The clean atmosphere is quite fit for an early morning walk.
There are a few morning walkers who are lucky enough as to enjoy the pleasure of the dawn. People go to nearby parks or gardens where the birds chirp. The koel sings a happy note. It thrills every heart. Many do a lot of exercise in the parks. A few run and jog. Many others inhale fresh air.
They take long breaths to cleanse the impurity of their lungs. The beautiful flowers and plants captivate our hearts and minds. The dewdrops sparkle in the rays of the rising sun. Walking on them barefeet cools the fatigued nerves. They are soothing and extremely useful to eyes. A smiling blossom welcomes you. You get a new feeling of life.
A morning walk by the riverside is also beneficial. People have long walks on either bank of the river. Most of the old people stroll there for hours. They find the lost joy of their youth. People bathe and swim in the river. Swimming is a very good exercise. Some take sunbath. It is said early rays of the sun give lustre to the body. They strengthen the sinews. They strengthen the body.
An early riser finishes his morning work in time. He is at a great advantage. He remains active and alerts the whole day. He hardly falls ill. It is all due to the regular morning walks. Its uses are too many, but only a few lucky reap this golden harvest.
Importance of Sports in Education
Points : education for all-round develop¬ment – lessens stress on mind – strengthens body – makes fit – sound mind in sound body -inculcates power of endurance – sportsman¬ship, co-operation, brotherhood – a boost in learning
True education should aim at developing the all-around personality of the child. It means that education should result in the mental, moral and physical development of the child. Unfortunately, the present system of education lays too much stress on the mental development, pays only a lip sympathy to moral development and completely neglects physical development.
All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. The wisdom of this proverb has been forgotten in schools and colleges. The outcome is millions of educated youths are turned out every year. They hold glorious degrees but their personalities remain totally dull and undeveloped.
In fact, for an all-around development of children, the curriculum of studies should include sports and games and health education. Sufficient time should be devoted to sports and physical training. This is absolutely necessary because mental and moral development is just not possible without physical development, for it is widely observed that A sound mind in a sound body.
A strong and healthy student, in the long run, will surpass the pale, sickly scholar who is but a mere bookworm.
Sports are necessary for developing a healthy and strong body. If the body is weak and unhealthy it is not possible to live a happy and useful life. Only a person with a healthy and strong body will be able to face the struggles of life successfully. Besides promoting health and strength, sports strengthen the students’ power of endurance and develop in them a spirit of co-operation and brotherhood.
They promote discipline, sense of fair play and team spirit. Young men and women are trained to accept defeat with a smile and retain humility even in victory. Sports refresh and recreate students. Sports facilitate students learn better and faster. They fill the students with new vigour, vitality and enthusiasm, which help them concentrate more on their studies.
In short, sports are not only essential but also indispensable for an all-around development of the youngsters. It is rightly said that, “The battle of Waterloo was won on the playgrounds of Eton.”
Points: a burning problem today – indisci¬pline in school and on a wider scale in society and country – features of indisciplined activities – reasons – how to tackle – threat to the integrity of nation-finding solutions
Students’ indiscipline is one of the burning problems faced by modern India. The problem is faced at two levels. At the narrow level, there is the problem of classroom indiscipline in the form of making noises, thumping desks, throwing paper darts, imitating the sounds of birds and animals, eating peanuts and playing truant. Such misbehaviour is often faced by new and inexperienced teachers. But a good teacher can deal with such misbehaviour successfully with a little tact and understanding.
Such classroom misbehaviour reveals unrest among students at a very problem as the students’ indiscipline in schools and colleges at wider level. It is in the form of strikes and demonstrations which sometimes turn violent and lead to stone-throwing, damaging property and violent clashes. ‘There is mass copying at the examinations or boycotting of exams for silly reasons. Such indiscipline disrupts academic life and vitiates the atmosphere in the temples of learning.
What are the causes of such serious students’ unrest? Students may have genuine grievances like lack of basic amenities, exorbitant fees, donations and capitation fees, corruption and malpractices in the examinations, want of sufficient teachers, dull and dry teaching in the form of lectures or giving of notes, high-handed attitude of teachers or heads, etc. If these genuine grievances are not redressed, students’ unrest may erupt violently.
The most important cause of the students’ unrest is the feeling of utter frustration experienced by students on account of the great difficulty in getting jobs after studying so hard and so long. Underpaid and overworked teachers working in overcrowded classes cannot provide the necessary attention and instruction. Parents are too busy to guide or control their children. Political parties exploit the students’ unrest for acheiving their political ends.
How is the burning problem to be solved? First of all, political parties must not exploit students for their selfish activities. Parents must exercise their moral influence. All the genuine grievances of the students must be redressed. Good teaching, smaller classes, personal attention, abolition of the present, outdated system of examination, facilities for games and other constructive activities, job-oriented education and clean and efficient administration will go a long way towards solving the problem of indiscipline.
Points: manners maketh man – modest and decent conduct – bad manners hurt feelings – bad manners in speech, actions, behaviour, gestures – bad manners make arrogant and self-centred – kindness of heart for good conduct – value of self-respect – sign of a good man
It is truly said that manners maketh a man. We judge a man from his manners. Good manners mean modest and decent conduct. Decent dress, charming behaviour, a sophisticated etiquette and politeness are the prerequisites of good manners.
A man of good manners stands out and sees that he does not hurt the feelings and sentiments of others with his words, actions, behaviour, gestures or sometimes even with silence. The words of courtesy like “Please, Thank you, Sorry, Excuse me, Beg your pardon. Would you mind …”, etc., spontaneously flow from the mouth of a man of good manners.
Good manners demand that while in company, we should take only a fair share of conversation. Whenever somebody is speaking, we should not interrupt or laugh or sneer or pass remarks. We ought to listen to the person attentively. While in a queue for a bus or a ticket we should wait patiently for our turn. While getting into or getting down from a bus or train, we should never push others or rush through.
Good manners express man’s personality as a gentleman. They reflect good breeding and culture. A man of good and pleasing manners is quite at peace with himself and with the rest of the world. Life is easy, smooth and friendly to him. Bad manners generally spring from arrogance, pride and self-centeredness. Sometimes rudeness and bluntness are justified on grounds of frankness, sincerity and outspokenness.
But there is no justification, whatsoever, for rudeness. It is not necessary to tell a man that we dislike him or to run him down by telling him that he is wrong. There is enough bitterness and enmity in this world. Why should we add to it by our thoughtless, arrogant words or behaviour? Good manners spring from kindness of heart.
Kindness begets sympathy for others. Our sympathy for others is born out of our genuine ! regard for them. We ought to realize that just ‘ as we value or self-respect, others, too, have ; the right to value their self-respect. Courtesy ! and kindness will enhance the self-respect of all. The essence of good manners lies in the; realization that we should always treat others ! as we expect them to treat us.
Use of Leisure
Points: spare time – mostly leads to; timewasting or destructive activities – these activities do no good – harmful to body! and mind – to be replaced with hobbies; knowledge-seeking activities – search for good pastime – make it constructive – use it advantageously –
Leisure is the spare time at one’s ; disposal before or after one’s working hours. It < is the time when .one is at ease and can rest ; or relax. What is this life, if full of care, We have no time to stand and stare. Through these lines, the poet W. H. Davies laments the lack of leisure in the life of modern man. Modern man finds no time to relax for a; while and enjoy the manifold charms of nature \ around him.
Davies calls such a life a poor life. It is dull and drab, monotonous and melancholic, without interest and variety. Most of the common people while away their spare time lying in bed, chatting, eating! and drinking, playing cards or indoor games, listening to music or watching TV or films.
Such activities are good neither for the body S nor for the mind. It is said that ‘all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy, but at the extreme end, all play and no work would make Jack a devil; for An idle mind is the devil’s workshop’. If people do not know how to use their leisure time, they may go for more exciting pleasures and may fall an easy prey to unhealthy or harmful activities like smoking, drinking and drug-taking, or even anti-social activities, crimes and vices.
The best way to use leisure is to cultivate and pursue some hobby of one’s liking. Choice ! of a hobby would depend upon one’s regular work and natural inclination. For those whose regular work involves physical exertion, hobbies like reading, drawing, painting, music, indoor games, stamp-collecting and photography would be more suitable. But for those whose regular work involves more of mental exertion, hobbies like outdoor sports, swimming, riding, gardening, carpentry, hiking, dancing, etc. will be more useful.
The way people utilise their leisure determines the quality of their life. Pursuit of healthy, constructive and creative activities in leisure time enriches life, helps to develop a balanced personality and makes life vibrant and worth living. On the other hand, pursuit of useless, destructive or harmful activities in leisure time mars the charm of happy life and makes life detestable.
Therefore, use of leisure hours by people is the true test of man’s personality and it determines its fate. It is, therefore, imperative that we should guide and motivate people, especially our young men and women, how to use their spare time. Otherwise, leisure will devour us and destroy our life and culture. Spare time will not spare us if we don’t know how to use it advantageously.
Points: a graceful gesture – saving some¬body’s life-a noble act-blood banks-wrong notions to be discouraged – be a regular blood- donor – discourages professional blood-donors – bringing about awareness of donation
Donation itself is a graceful word and when it comes to save somebody’s life, it becomes glorious. I personally feel that no donation is so great as ‘blood donation’ for the urge of donating blood emerges from within, least expecting fame for the deed done.
Patients who have lost much blood on account of accident, disease or surgical operation require blood. Sudden loss of blood in a large quantity can even cause death. To supply blood of the right group immediately to the patients’ blood banks have been established all over the world. These banks collect blood, test it, classify it into different groups and store it for future use. They also store components of blood.
Blood banks get blood from people who donate it voluntarily. Blood donation is, therefore, a great service which any able-bodied adult can offer to the suffering humanity. There is a mistaken notion among some people that blood donors become weak by giving blood. In fact, blood-making is an unceasing process in our body, so the person never falls short of blood if he gives it away willingly. But it is advisable for the donor not to donate blood more often than at the interval of every three months.
Blood donation drives are usually organised by voluntary agencies through camps. People come to donate their blood. Nurses and doctors help in collecting blood. Blood group of the donor is first checked. The donor must be of the right age and weight. He must be healthy. Blood is drawn from a vein in the donor’s arm. The blood is collected in a sterilised bottle or plastic bag. It is kept in a cool place and sent to a blood bank where it is preserved safely. Blood is also donated directly in case of an emergency.
The donor is made to lie in a bed near the patient and blood is taken from his body and transfused into the body of the recipient immediately. This is called blood transfusion. Sometimes professional blood donors donate blood for money. This is an unfair practice since the blood is not properly tested and collected from such professional donors. This menace should be tackled at a higher level on a war footing, as it may cost somebody’s life.
In this world, nothing is so important than human life. Therefore, we can state that donating blood to save life holds topmost importance. People should cultivate awareness for blood donation and contribute their share for a noble cause.
Points: hazardous phenomenon – different kinds of disasters – man-made and natural -features – damage they do – preventive measures to be taken – rescue actions to be taken – planned efforts to prevent physical destruction and save human loss
When a hazardous phenomenon occurs, it is called a disaster. Disasters can be natural or man-made. People live or rather are compelled to live in hazardous places like on unstable slopes where landslides are likely to happen or close to rivers which could flood. If preventive measures are not taken, natural phenomena like landslides, floods, Tsunami, earthquakes can strike very hard and cause great disasters.
Man-made disasters are caused by terrorist attacks. Attacks in Kashmir, attacks on the World Trade Centre are the unique examples of manmade disasters. In such situations successful, efficient and effective management is essential. Effective, quick disaster management can make the impact of the disaster blunt and bearable.
The following steps can be taken to make the disaster management more effective:
1. Preventive measures should be taken to avoid the occurrence of the disaster.
2. Assessment of the disaster vulnerability of a location and of the vulnerable groups should be done.
3. Disaster specific preparedness and awareness should be developed.
4. Mock drills should be conducted for preparedness.
Rescue measures if disaster strikes:
- Quick help from the society and social agencies.
- Quick help from the Government.
- Speedy evacuation and quick medical aid.
- Continuity of the flow of help for the required period.
- Speedy disbursement of financial assistance to the victims of the disaster.
- Society should come forward with food packets, clothes and first aid medicines.
- Quick disposed of dead bodies.
- Arresting the spread of epidemics.
- Rehabilitation of the disaster victims.
Points: pleasant – some feel home-sick – activities there – company you make – advan¬tages and disadvantages – being self-reliant, co-operative – but may turn wayward – wasting money – falling in bad company – bad habits developing – otherwise very helpful in life
Hostel life is very pleasant in many ways. Students live in hostels when their schools and colleges are far away from home. Again, some guardians prefer that their wards should live in hostels though their homes are not far off. Since many students of the same age live together in a hostel, the students of the same nature develop great intimacy among themselves. There grows a spirit of co-operation and fellow feeling among them. To the earnest students, it is a better place for studies, because they are free here.
In some hostels, debates are also arranged. This is helpful for a student who desires to develop his power of speech and reasoning. Sometimes cultural functions are also held in the hostel. These develop in the students a sense of responsibility, culture and refinement. Living in the hostel, the students have to take care of their own things. In some hostels, students even clean their dishes after taking meals. All these activities develop in them the spirit of self-reliance.
But, of course, the hostel life has its drawback also. The guardians send their wards to the hostel for their education in the hope that they will study here regularly and do well in the examination. But it does not always happen. Some students spend money lavishly and waste their time. Sometimes they cause disturbance to other students. Thus they harm themselves as well as others. To the great disappointment of their guardians, such students do not perform well in the examination.
Students living in hostels should remember that their guardians are spending their hard-earned money on them. It is their duty to take advantage of the freedom of the hostel life and do well in the examinations. If that is done, nothing can be better than hostel life.