Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 13 India: Location, Geological Structure and Physiography 1 summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
India: Location, Geological Structure and Physiography 1 Class 9 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 13
India: Location, Geological Structure and Physiography 1 Class 9 GSEB Notes
→ Geographically, India lies in the northern hemisphere. It extends up to the southern part of Asian continent.
→ The Tropic of Cancer, which is located at 23°5′ north latitude and divides the country into two parts, passes through the centre of India.
→ The latitudinal, as well as longitudinal extents of India, are almost equal, which is about 30°, but actually the length between kashmir to Kanniyakumari is 3214 km and from Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh, the width is 2933 kilometres.
→ When it is sunrise in Arunachal Pradesh, It is still night time in Gujarat.
→ The standard meridian of India is 82°30′ East longitude.
→ The land area of India lies in south Asia. In the north, mountain ranges are spread over hundreds of kilometres from west to east direction.
→ Bay of Bengal lies to the east, Arabian Sea to the west and Indian Ocean to the south of peninsular India.
→ The sea is utilised as a waterway.
→ India has accepted all cultural elements arriving from outside.
→ India had trade relations with East Africa, West Asia, South Asia and South-East Asia since ancient times.
→ India had developed cultural and commercial relations with them due to her location.
→ With the opening of Suez Canal in 1869, the distance between India and Europe has reduced by about 7000 kilometres.
→ Canada and U.S.A. can be reached through the same waterway via Strait of Malacca and the Pacific Ocean.
→ India has contacts with many countries since many centuries, goods and ideas are being exchanged since ancient times.
→ Concepts of Upanishads, stories of Ramayana and Panchtantra, therapeutic methods, Indian numerical figures and decimal system etc. could reach many parts of the world.
→ There are 29 States and a National Capital Territory and 6 Union Territories in India.
→ There are seven major tectonic plates. These are :
- Pacific plate
- North American plates
- South American plate
- European plate
- African plate
- Indo-Australian plate, and
- Antarctic plate.
→ India was a part of a very vast and an ancient landmass known as the Gondwanaland. Due to the collision between Indo-Australian plate and the European plate, the Himalayan mountain system emerged out of Tethys Sea.
A large valley was formed to the south of the Himalayan system, wherein alluvial sediments were deposited by the rivers flowing from north and south of it. Ganga, Yamuna and Brahmaputra rivers flow’ in the northern plains.