GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 7 Population

GSEB Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 7 Population Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.

Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 7 Population

GSEB Class 12 Economics Population Text Book Questions and Answers

1. Choose the correct option for the following questions :

Question 1.
In India, for the first time, who was responsible for population census?
(A) Jamshedji Tata
(B) Swaminathan
(C) Deendayal Upadhyay
(D) Dadabhai Naoroji
(A) Jamshedji Tata

Question 2.
What is the estimate of population between 2021-2025?
(A) 155 crores
(B) 130 crores
(C) 139.98 crores
(D) 180 crores
(C) 139.98 crores

Question 3.
In India, when was the first population census taken?
(A) 1901
(B) 1951
(C) 1891
(D) 1921
(B) 1951

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 7 Population

Question 4.
How much was India’s population in 1901?
(A) 22.2 crores
(B) 25.2 crores
(C) 102.7 crores
(D) 23.8 crores
(D) 23.8 crores

Question 5.
How much was India’s population in 2011?
(A) 36.1 crores
(B) 54.8 crores
(C) 121.02 crores
(D) 23.8 crores
(C) 121.02 crores

Question 6.
In which year was planning started in India?
(A) 1901
(B) 1951
(C) 1950
(D) 2000
(B) 1951

Question 7.
Which country in the world has the largest population?
(A) China
(B) India
(C) Australia
(D) America
(A) China

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 7 Population

Question 8.
Which state in India has the highest female population per 1000 males?
(A) Gujarat
(B) Maharashtra
(C) Kerala
(D) Uttar Pradesh
(C) Kerala

Question 9.
How much was the female population per 1000 male population in India in 2011?
(A) 930
(B) 950
(C) 940
(D) 970
(C) 940

Question 10.
What was India’s birth-rate in 2011?
(A) 21.8
(B) 36.8
(C) 72.0
(D) 23.8
(A) 21.8

2. Answer the following questions in one line :

Question 1.
What has been the basic cause for all the problems?
Population explosion or say population rise.

Question 2.
What is meant by working and non working population?
The number of people working out of the total population is known as working population. Generally people in the age group 15-64 years are included in working population.

Those people who do not contribute anything in the productive activities of the country are known as non-working population. For example, children and old people.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 7 Population

Question 3.
What was the population growth rate in 2011?

Question 4.
Where does India stand in the world population order?
India stands second in the order in world population

Question 5.
What was the female population per 1000 males in Gujarat in 2011?
918 females per 1000 males

Question 6.
What is meant by classification of population according to age group?
The classification of population into various age groups is called age-wise population.

Question 7.
Which age group has the highest population in India?
15-64 years age group has the highest population in India.

Question 8.
State the percentage of rural-urban population in India in the year 2011?
Rural population – 68% and urban population – 32% in the year 2011 in India.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 7 Population

Question 9.
What is meant by infant mortality rate?
Out of every 1000 children born ¡n a given year, the number of children that die within one year of age is known as infant mortality rate.

3. Answer the following questions in brief :

Question 1.
Why is the year 1921 identified as the year of ‘great divide’?

  • In India, the population grew at a slower rate between the first two decades i.e. 1901 and 1921. In the first decade i.e. 1901-1911, it grew by 0.57% where as in the second decade i.e. 1911-21 it decreased by 0.03%.
  • Apart from the year 1921, population has grown continuously in all the decades. Not a single decade has seen reduction in population after 1921. Hence the year 1921 was considered as the ‘Year of great divide’.

Question 2.
What is meant by productive and unproductive population?

  • The classification of Indian population into various age groups is called age- wise population of India.
  • The total population is divided into three age groups. They are:
    1. 0-14 years,
    2. 15-64 years and
    3. 65 and more
  • The population in the age group of 15-64 years is known as the productive population. The economic development of the country depends on this population.
  • The population in the age group of 0-14 years and 65+ years is known as the unproductive population because such population generally belongs to the non-working category.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 7 Population

Question 3.
Give the meaning of birth-rate and state the formula to calculate birth-rate.

  • The number of children born per every 1000 persons during any given year is known as birth-rate.
  • Birth-rate = \(\frac{\text { The number of live-births in a given year }}{\text { Total population }}\) × 1000
  • Birth-rate is not measured on the basis of percentage but on the basis of rise in population per 1000 persons.

Question 4.
Give the meaning of death-rate and state the formula to calculate death-rate.

  • The number of persons per every 1000 persons during any given year is known as death-rate.
  • Death-rate = \(\frac{\text { No. of people died in a given year }}{\text { Total population }}\) × 1000
  • Death-rate is not measured on the basis of percentage but on the basis of number of deaths per 1000 persons.

Question 5.
Give the meaning of population policy.
Population policy:

  • A population policy is a policy framed by a country in order to take its population to a level that it feels is optimal.
  • India was the first county in the world to introduce population policy to control population.
  • India framed its National Population Policy in 2000 under the chairmanship of Dr. M.S Swamipathan.
  • Under this policy India made various changes in its programme related to family planning.

4. Give pinpointed answers for the following questions :

Question 1.
Explain population explosion.
Population explosion:

  • A rapid increase in the size of population due to factors like decline in infant mortality, increase in life expectancy, etc. is known as population explosion.
  • In case of India, its death-rate has fallen rapidly whereas birth-rate has not fallen to that extent. This has resulted in population explosion.
  • Population rise is the most important and biggest reason for the various problems faced by the world. The world has never ever witnessed such a fast rate of growth of population as in the present period and India is not an exception.

Population explosion in India:

  • Our population has continuously increased between the years 1931 and 2011.
  • In 1951, the population of India was 36.1 crores. This increased to 121.02 crores in 2011. This means that within the span of 60 years India’s population has increased by 85.7 crores with an average growth rate of around 2.5 percent. 4
  • In Indian context, a very high population with a quite high growth rate of population especially after 1970 is known as population explosion.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 7 Population

Question 2.
State the causes of low death-rate.
Causes of Low Death-rate:
1. Improvement in standard of living:

  • Rise in economic development has led to rise in people’s income which in turn has increased their standard of living.
  • People of our country have now started getting better quality food grains, better housing, health care and education which has led to decrease in death-rate.

2. Control over epidemics:

  • In the beginning of 20^ century, India was struggling with life threatening diseases like, plague, measles, tuberculosis, malaria, etc. So the death-rate was high.
  • By the end of 20th century India achieved good economic development. As country’s economy improved it made astonishing progress in medical science and researched various vaccines for immunization. This resulted in control over diseases and decreased death-rate.

3. Control over drought:

  • With advancement in science and technology we have gained control over droughts. As a result, the deaths caused by hunger do not take place now.
  • Due to green revolution we could increase our supply of food grains considerably after 1966. Food grains can be easily transported from abundant areas to scarce areas and thus we could prevent deaths related to starvation in draught hit areas.

4. Protection against natural calamities and transportation facilities:

  • Earlier natural calamities like earth quake, tsunami, landslides, floods, famines, floods, etc. led to high death-rate.
  • Our transportation facilities have become very fast. So, if a natural calamity takes place in any part of the country, then we can provide immediate relief to the affected region from another region. We can now quickly transport basic requirement like food grains, medicines, etc. to the affected region. This has reduced the death-rate.

5. Answer the following questions in detail :

Question 1.
Discuss in detail the gender ratio (number of females per 1000 males)
Gender (Sex) Ratio:

  • The number of females in the country per 1000 males is known as gender ratio, sex ratio or female-male ratio.
  • Gender ratio occupies an important place in the study of population. If the number of females is decreasing compared to males then it creates various problems in the country.
  • If the gap between number of females and males increases then it leads to a number of problems related to marriage, family, reproduction, etc.

By studying the gender-ratio we can find out the numbers and then focus our attention to understand the causes of adversity in gender ratio and efforts needed to solve them.

Gender ratio in India

Year Number of females per 1000 males (India) Number of females per 1000 males (Gujarat)
1901 972 954
1931 950 945
1961 941 940
1991 927 936
2001 933 921
2011 940 918

Source: Census of India 2011

Analysis and conclusion:
1. From the data it can be clearly seen that between 1901 and 1991 the number of females per 1000 males has continuously decreased both at India level and at Gujarat level.

The trend changed in the decade of 2001 to 2011 where in female population per 1000 males increased at India level, although negligibly. The “Beti Bachao” programme has played a good role in encouraging people to give birth to girl child and raise her with pride.

2. Looking at the data of Gujarat, was can see that the female to male ratio has continuously fallen from the period between 1901 and 2011.

Such a fall is not a healthy sign for the region. It creates, social and cultural problems.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 7 Population

Question 2.
Discuss in detail the causes for high birth-rate.
Causes of high birth-rate:
In India, the causes of high birth-rate can be classified in three major parts. They are:
(A) Social factors,
(B) Economic factors and
(C) Other factors.

(A) Social factors:
1. Universality of marriage:

  • In India marriage is a religious ritual. The society doubts an unmarried person and raises various questions about his/her singlehood.
  • Many a times to escape from this, a man and a woman enter into the institution of marriage. Even disabled people are no exceptions.
  • The number of woman marrying in India is high compared to woman of developed countries. Marriages then lead to rise in birth of children.

2. Early marriage and widow remarriage:

  • Despite laws banning child marriage still it happens in many parts of our country. Since they get married very early, their fertility rate is very high and lengthy. This results in the birth of more number of children.
  • India also follows a Widow Remarriage Act where in the widows are made to marry if they wish to. This also has resulted in high birth-rate.

3. Preference for a male child: Indian society is dominated by males.

Indians give more importance to sons than daughters for the following three reasons:

  • People believe that male child can make the family tree grow further.
  • People believe male child will support them financially during old age.
  • Due to these reasons people keep on trying for a male child unless they get one. This mad rush increases the family size and hence the birth-rate.

4. Joint family system:

  • People in rural areas mainly live in joint families.
  • When a child is born the financial responsibility, as well as the responsibility of raising that child, is shared by all the members of the family. Hence, the child does not become a burden and so people do not hesitate to give births. This increases the overall birth-rate.

(B) Economic factors:
1. Low level of education:

  • Education, especially female education and population growth has a close relationship.
  • Inadequate education makes it difficult to understand the need for small families and as a result the family size tends to become large.
  • Education in female and the number of children in a family have an inverse relationship all over the world.
  • It has been found that compared to illiterate women, the woman who has had primary education gives birth to less number of children. This statement also holds true also while comparing women having primary education with women having middle school education.
  • From these facts, it can be said that the birth-rate is high because of illiteracy and low education.

2. Low income level:

  • When the income level of a family is low, the birth-rate of a child is considered to be an asset rather than a burden. Such families believe in the saying of “more the merrier”.
  • Members of such families think that child born will also contribute to income of the family in future and hence they should give birth to more children. We see such mindset in people living on roadside and slums.

3. High infant mortality rate:

  • Out of every 1000 children born in a given year, the number of children that die within one year of age is known as infant mortality rate.
  • Infant mortality rate is quite high in India in comparison to developed countries.
  • The main reasons for high infant mortality rate are poverty, less care given to girl child, lack of nutritional food, frequent abortions among women, age-old practice in the upbringing of a child, inadequate medical facilities, less gap between two children, etc.

(C) Other factors:
1. High fertility rate:
Fertility rate refers to the number of children born out of every 1000 females belonging to the age group of 15-49 years.

  • High fertility is an important characteristic of Indian population.
  • In 1961, on an average a women belonging to this age group used to give birth to 6 children. This fell to 3 children in 2011. Still the number is quite high.

Reason for this characteristic are:

  • Early marriage leads to longer fertility period for women.
  • A very less number of women belonging to this fertile group are unmarried.

2. Lack of family planning information:

  • The decisions taken regarding the size of family and maintaining gap between two children based on proper understanding i.e. a planned parenthood is called family planning.
  • In India, poverty, social customs and religious beliefs combined with low level of education worked as obstacles to family planning.
  • Lack of knowledge regarding the tools of family planning and sometimes scarcity of such tools also leads to high birth-rate

GSEB Solutions Class 12 Economics Chapter 7 Population

Question 3.
Explain in detail the methods to control population.
Measures to control population:
Following steps should be taken to control population:
1. Mass education and awareness:

  • In order to reduce birth-rate it is necessary to make people realise the importance of small families.
  • Demographers believe that the best method of population control is to educate people in this regard.
  • Awareness should be spread by telecasting various programmes through media. Lectures, .seminars, plays, mock and songs should be arranged in schools and colleges to educate people and create awareness on population control.
  • In year 2000, government put a special emphasis on upliftment of women in its population policy. Such initiatives can help drastically to control population.

2. Effectiveness of family planning programme:
Government increased its family planning services so that family planning programme and its public awareness can be made more effective.

  • It is essential that contraceptives which play a major role in preventing birth¬rate are available to people easily and at cheap rates.
  • In the population policy of 2000, changes were made in the programme related to family planning. It was decided to give more focus on preventing unwanted pregnancy by adopting suitable preventive methods rather than giving undue importance to sterilization.

3. Increasing the age of marriage and raising the status of women:

  • One of the ways to reduce birth-rate is by increasing the legal age of marriage particularly for women.
  • In the population policy of 2000, it was emphasized to increase the age of marriage for women from 18 to 20 years.
  • The size of family can be controlled if the status of women is increased in the society and if equal opportunities are given to both men and women in the matters of education and employment.

4. Encouragement and discouragement:

  • The encouragement and discouragement offered by the Government play a very important role in family planning. For example, government gives financial compensation to those couples who undergo sterilization.
  • To discourage the rising population China has adopted a policy in which if a couple has more than two children than the government withdraws several facilities from that couple. However, China has relaxed this policy to some extent. This discourages the couples to give birth to more than 1 child. Similar policy can be adopted in India as well.
  • In India, people contesting for local self-government elections are disqualified if they have more than two children.

5. Expanding medical services and its effectiveness:

  • In India death-rate has come down but it is still higher than some of the developed countries. Advancement in medical science has increased the services and facilities for child birth and health of the new born.
  • Efforts should be made to see that vaccination facilities are available easily and everywhere. Awareness regarding communicable and sexual diseases like AIDS, various infections, etc. should be increased. This can help to reduce death-rate and infant mortality rate.
  • India was the first county in the world to introduce population policy to control population. A committee was set up to frame New Population Policy of 2000 under the Chairmanship of Dr. M.S. Swaminathan.

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