GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

Gujarat Board GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Second Language Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

GSEB Std 12 English Textbook Solutions Unit 6 Unit 1 Read 1 Strike Against War (2nd Language)

GSEB Class 12 English Strike Against War Text Book Questions and Answers

Comprehension

1. Underline three sentences and three phrases that have touched you most.

(1) I am in the hands of unprincipled persons who persuade me to adopt unpopular causes and make me the mouthpiece of their propaganda.
(2) There is nothing between us and our enemies except the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean.
(3) The workers know they have no enemies except their masters, their citizenship papers are no warrant for the safety of their wives and children.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

Phrases:

(1) Oh! blind vanity of slaves.
(2) The achievement and legacy of generations swept away in a moment and nobody better off for all the misery!
(3) From time immemorial men have followed with build loyalty the strong men.

2. Make True or False. Correct the false sentences:

(1) Helen is appealing to the editors, statesmen and administrators for giving freedom to citizens.
(2) Helen exposes the ways the authority instigates workers for war.
(3) She asks workers to speak out.
(4) Workers are allowed to go on strike for their rights.
(5) As civilization develops, workers feel freer.
Answer:
(1) True
(2) True
(3) False
(4) True
(5) False

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

3. Find the sentences with similar meaning.

Question 1.
I do not need translators.
Answer:
I would not change places with them; ‘I know’ what I am talking about.

Question 2.
As you have your strength, I have mine.
Answer:
All I ask gentlemen Is a fair field and no favour.

Question 3.
The law makers should have the sole interest – people’s welfare.
Answer:
We are not free unless the men who irame and execute the laws represent the interest of the lives of the people and no other interest.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

Question 4.
Right to vote doesn’t reduce one’s slavery.
Answer:
The ballot does not make a free man out of a wage slave.

Question 5.
Workers’ importance is not more than I’ that of parts of machines.
Answer:
As civilization has grown more complex the workers have become more enslaved until they are little more than parts of the machines I they operate.

Question 6.
Only you can stop wars.
Answer:
Strike against war, for without you no ! battles can be fought.

4. Tick mark the nearest meaning of the sentences:

Question 1.
It is to be a fight to finish and I want no quarter.
(a) I want total revolution. (✓)
(b) I don’t want partition.
(c) It is what has never happened.
Answer:
(a) I want total revolution.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

Question 2.
Workers have no enemies except their masters.
(a) Workers think that masters are their enemies.
(b) Masters have no enemies. (✓)
(c) The ultimate welfare of the workers is damaged by the masters only.
Answer:
(b) Masters have no enemies

Question 3.
Oh blind vanity of slaves !
(a) Workers are always blind.
(b) It is very unfortunate that workers are just like slaves but they think that they are great.(✓)
(c) Masters keep them blind.
Answer:
(b) It is very unfortunate that workers are just like slaves but they think that they are great

Question 4.
The ballot does not make a free man out of a wage slave.
(a) Right of voting is not enough. (✓)
(b) Elections are compulsory in free country.
(c) Marking on ballot paper is the right process.
Answer:
(a) Right of voting is not enough.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

5. Identify the sentences related to the following themes. Write the first two and the last two words of that sentence.

Cleverness of authority Foolishness of workers Slavery of workers Duty of the workers
The clever ones up ……… better off for all the misery [Paragraph 4; Text page 62] From time immemorial men have ……  robbed of the fruits of their labour. [Paragraph 5; Text page 62] As civilization has grown …..  taxes tributes and war compensations. [Paragraph 6; Text page 62] It is your duty …………  to country all times. [Paragraph 8; Text page 63]

Complete the sentences.

(1) The editors and others have come for persuading her not to be the mouthpiece of some people but she does not want their pity nor wants to change places with them.

(2) Helen has entered the fight against preparedness and the economic system in which she does not want any favour.

(3) It is unfair to talk about low wages when our own country, our very liberties are in danger.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

(4) The workers have built palaces and pyramids, temples and cathedrals but these hold no shrine of liberty.

(5) Germans abolished the slums because they could not raise good soldiers in the slums.

7. Complete the tables

Sentences from the text Interpretation
I would not change places with one of them. I don’t want to interchange my place with anybody of you.
Not all the editors I have met can do that. All the editors I have met do not have the sources of information that I have.
There is nothing between us and our enemies except the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean. Geographically there is only the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean between us and our enemy.
Quit your whining, get busy and prepare to defend your firesides and your flag. Stop complaining, prepare yourself to defend your country and your freedom from your enemies.
They will go forth to fight valiantly for their own enemies.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

If the workers are given honours they will fight for the clever ones who are their real enemies.
This terrible sacrifice would be comprehensible. If the thing you die for and call country, fed,
clothed, housed the children.
Your sacrifice Is fruitful If it affects the lives of common people.

8. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
What does Helen believe about the editors ?
Answer:
Helen does not want to depreciate the editors. She believes about the editors that they are an overworked, misunderstood class. She believes it firmly that she should understand their efforts and avail appreciation for them or they will not be encouraged to work genuinely further.

Question 2.
Why does Helen call it the voice of authority a trap ?
Answer:
The voice of authority addresses the workmen as patriots and diverts their attention alarming them that their country is in danger. ‘I The voice of authority gives examples of Belgium and Serbia and make them frightened.

It suggests the workmen that they should not ask for rise in s their wages as their liberties are in danger. The voice suggests the workmen to quit grumbling, get busy and prepare to defend their kitchen and country.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

Thus, these speeches function as a trap for the workmen as they would get sentimental with elated feelings of nationalism and would not demand more wages.

Question 3.
Why does she call their masters their enemies ?
Answer:
She calls their masters their enemies because the workers know that they have no enemies except their masters. They know that their citizenship papers are no guarantee for the safety of their wives and children.

They know that honest sweat, persistent toil and years of struggle bring them nothing on to, worth fighting for. Therefore, they keep on enduring everything that their masters impose on them.

Question 4.
What is blind ‘vanity’ ?
Answer:
Even if the workers toil persistently and diligently and lead struggleful life, they get nothing satisfying as their reward. Their masters keep on be fooling them in the name of defending country sacrificing everything from their side.

Even with all this awareness, they never raise voice against them. The workmen are so simple at their hearts that they believe themselves a country. This is ‘blind vanity’ according to Helen Keller.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

Question 5.
What are the consequences of war ?
Answer:
The consequences of war are always horrible. Millions of young men die. Some other millions get cripped and blinded for life. For still more millions of human beings, their existence turns horrible. The achievement and legacy of generations are swept away in a moment and nobody is better off for all the misery.

Question 6.
What, according to Helen, is the real freedom of workers ?
Answer:
The real freedom of workers is when they are not compelled to work twelve or ten hours a day. They are not free when they are ill paid for their exhausting toil. They are not free when their children must labour in mills and factories or starve.

They are also not free when their woman maybe driven by poverty to lives of shame. They are not free when they are clubbed and imprisoned because they go on strike for a raise of wages and for their basic justice. If they get rid of all these constraints, they can have real freedom.

Question 7.
Why does she say that there has never existed a truly free and democratic nation in the world ?
Answer:
Helen Keller says that there has never existed a truly free and democratic nation in the world because from time immerorial, men have followed the strong men who had the power of money and of armies with blind loyalty. They have tilled the lands of the rulers and have been robbed off the fruits of their labour.

Question 8.
How does slavery exist in the civilized world ?
Answer:
As civilization has grown more complex, the workers have become more and more enslaved. They have been more like machines. Daily they face the dangers of railroad, bridge, skyscraper, freight train, stockhold, stockyard and training at docks on the railroads and underground and on the seas.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

Question 9.
Which view of Helen matches with the following quote :
“Workers of the world unite; you have nothing to lose but your chains”. -Karl Marx
Answer:
In the same tone as this quote reveals, Helen says, “Be not dumb, obedient slaves in an army of destruction. Be heroes in an army of construction.”

9. Elaborate the sentences in about 50 words with reference to the text.

Question 1.
All I ask, gentlemen, is a fair field and no favour.
Answer:
Addressing the Editors Helen tells them that she is unable to understand if they would achieve success at the end of their hard work.On the other hand she feels that they are unable to comprehend their efforts to give justice to the workers. She demands fair fight without any favour.

Question 2.
The clever ones, up in the high places know how childish and silly the workers are.
Answer:
The people at the helm of affairs know s that the workers are not very clever. They are innocent and will do everything in the name of their country. The clever take advantage of their blind faith in those clever ones.

Question 3.
Be not dumb, obedient slaves in an army of destruction. Be heroes in an army of construction.
Answer:
She advises the workers to avoid being foolish and refrain from being slaves following ‘ the dictates of the clever ones. She encourages the workers to be heroes and fight bravely for the reconstruction of the values of the workers.

10. Summarise this passage in about

It is your duty to ……….. to the country at all times.
Answer:
She reminds the workers about their duty to demand more important measures. They should see that child labour is banished. The factories should be clean having healthy surroundings.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

Machines should be such that no accidents are caused. It is the work of clever ones to provide clean cities without smoke, congestion and dirt. The amount of wages paid should be such that workers get minimum amount required for their existence.

This should be done throughout the nation and thus provide opportunity to all to enjoy proper nourishment, education, intelligence which can be of service to the country at all times.

(A) Additional Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions:

Question 1.
What does Helen Keller want to tell the editors pitying her?
Answer:
Helen Keller clearly tells the editors and others that they should not feel grieved thinking that she is in the hands of unprincipled persons who pursuade her to adopt unpopular causes and make her the mouthpiece of their propaganda.

She doesn’t want their pity and she would never like to change places with one of those editors. She explains that her sources of information are good and reliable. She has papers and magazines from „ England, France, Germany and Austria. She reads those papers and forms and has her own opinion.

Question 2.
What are simple workers given and expected to do ?
Answer:
The clever ones, holding high positions, know it well how to lure workers and make them do what they want.

They know that if the government dresses them up in khaki and gives them a rifle and starts them off with a band and waving banners, they will go forth to fight bravely for their own enemies.

They’re taught that brave men die for their country’s honour and it costs lives of millions of young men; other millions crippled and blinded for life and life becomes s horrible for still more millions.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

Question 3.
Why does Helen Keller call the workers ‘the most unselfish of the children of men’ ?
Answer:
According to Helen Keller, the workers toil and live and die for other people’s country, other people’s continents, other people’s liberties and other people’s happiness. They have no liberties of their own, still they sacrifice everything of their lives. In this way, they are the most unselfish of
the children of men.

Question 4.
What should be done for the workers ?
Answer:
What the workers want is the kind of preparedness to reorganise and reconstruct their whole life. What they need is the essentials of civilization decent lodging, clean streets, wholesome if scanty food, proper medical care and proper safeguards for the workers in their occupations.The administration should be forced to bring about these reforms.

(B) Short notes

Write a short note focussing on the questions:

Helen Keller’s Motivation and Message for the Workers

  • speech at Carnegie Hall, NY
  • righteous anger against misleading policies of government and statesman
  • they asks workers to join army and make sacrifices
  • the families of the workers suffer
  • day by day they are being enslaved with : the growth of more complex civilization
  • Helen asks workers to aggressively strike against war and be heroes in the army of construction

Answer:
Helen Keller’s Motivation and Message for the Workers :
In her speech at Carnegie Hall, New York city, Helen Keller expresses her righteous indignation against statesmen and governments, sympathising with pitiable conditions of the workers.

She says that she has entered the fight against preparedness and against the economic system under which they live. Statesmen keep on : misleading them, in the name of their country and consequently their liberties being in danger.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

They trap the workers emotionally and provoke them to join the army. She brings to the notice of the workers that toil and live and die for other people’s country and for other people’s happiness.

They do not have liberties of their own. They have to work for about twelve hours a day and still they are ill-paid. Their children have to labour in mills and factories or they will starve.

Their women driven by poverty have to live the lives of shame. Still their demand of raising wages is always curtailed with the growth of more and more civilization, the workers are more and more enslaved.

In such condition she asks them to strike against all ordinances and laws and peace slaying institutions. She aggressively asks them to strike against preparedness that means death and misery to millions of human beings. She asks them not to be dumb, obedient slaves in army or destruction but be heroes in ! the army of construction.

(C) Reading Comprehension

Will the workers walk into this trap ? Will they be fooled again ? I am afraid so. The people have always been susceptible to the oratory of this sort. The workers know they have no enemies except their masters.

They know that their citizenship papers are no warrant for the safety of their wives and children. They know that honest sweat, persistent toil and years of struggle bring them nothing on to, worth fighting for. Yet, deep down in their foolish hearts they believe they a country. Oh blind vanity of slaves !

Questions :
(1) What does the writer alarm the workers at?
(2) What is ‘blind vanity of slaves’, according to the writer ?
Answers :
(1) The writer points out the fact that simple- hearted workers are carried away by the oratory of shrewd leaders and get befooled. They have to sacrifice everything in their life but sugarcoated speeches of leaders trap them and they lead a miserable life working for them.

(2) According to the writer, in spite of being aware of the fact that their honest sweat, persistent toil and years of struggle bring them nothing on to worth fighting for, the workers foolishly believe that they are a country. This is blind vanity of slaves.

(2) I We are not free unless the men who frame and execute the laws represent the interests of the lives of the people and no other interest. The ballot does not make a free man out of a wage slave. There has never existed a truly free and democratic nation in the world.

From time immemorial men have followed with blind loyalty the strong men who had the power of money and of armies. Even while battlefields were piled high with their own dead, they have tilled the lands of the rulers and have been robbed off the fruits of their labour.

Questions :
(1) Whom have men followed from time immemorial ?
(2) In what adverse conditions have the slaves served their masters ?
Answers :
(1) From time immemorial, men have followed with blind loyalty the strong men who had the power of money and of armies.
(2) Even while their own ones died on the battlefields fighting, these slaves have tilled the lands of the rulers and have been robbed off the fruits of their labour.

(3) As civilization has grown more complex, the workers have become more and more enslaved, until today they Eire little more than parts of the machines they operate.

Daily they face the dangers of railroad, bridge, skyscraper, freight ‘ train, stokehold, stockyard and training at the docks, on the railroads and underground and on the seas.

They move the traffic and pass from land to land the precious commodities that make it possible for us to live. And what is their reward ? A scanty wage, often poverty, rents taxes tributes and war compensations.

Questions :
(1) What is the adverse effect of advanced civilization ?
(2) What kind of work the labourers carry out?
Answers :
(1) As civilization has grown more complex, the workers have become more and more enslaved. They have to work like machines.
(2) The labourers have to work in dangerous conditions of working at rail-road bridge, skyscraper, freight train, stockhold, stockyard and training at docks.

(4) My sources of information are as good and reliable as anybody else’s. I have papers and magazines from England, France, Germany and Australia that I can read myself. Not all the editors I have met can do that. They were an overworked and misunderstood class.

Questions :
(1) How many languages could Helen Keller read ?
(2) What did Helen Keller want to say about editors ?
Answers :
(1) Helen Keller could read English, France, Germany and Australian languages.
(2) Helen Keller wanted to say about the editors that they were an overworked and misunderstood class.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

(5) There are foes on all sides of us. There is nothing between us and our enemies except the Pacific ocean and the Atlantic ocean. Look at what has happened to Belgium. Consider the fate of Serbia. Will you murmer about low wages when your country, your very liberties are in danger ? Quit your grumbling, get busy and prepare to defend your firesides and your flag.

Questions :
(1) Write names of the seas mentioned in this paragraph.
(2) What does the author advise people ?
Answer:
(1) The seas mentioned in this paragraph are: Pacific ocean and Atlantic ocean.
(2) The author advises people to quit grumbling, get busy and prepare to defend their firesides and their flag.

(6) To begin with, I have a word to say to my good friends, the editors and others who are moved to pity me. Some people are grieved because they imagine I am in the hands of unprincipled persons who would make me a mouthpiece of propaganda.

Questions:
(1) To whom is Helen Keller addressing ?
(2) What do some people and editors think ?
Answer:
(1) Helen Keller is addressing the editors and to those who took pity on her.
(2) Some people and editors think that Helen was in the hands of unprincipled persons who would make her a mouthpiece of propaganda.

(D) Say True or False

Write whether the following sentences are True or False:

(1) We should take arms against each other in times of war.
(2) We can achieve anything by means of war.
(3) Workers are taught that brave men die for their country’s honor.
(4) When war breaks out between nations, we see gradual progress of the nation.
(5) Workers’ importance is not more than that of parts of machine.
(6) The workmen are so shrewd that they believe themselves a country.
(7) Workers are not free when their women maybe driven by poverty to lives of shame.
(8) Workers are refused to go on strike for their rights.
( 9) The law makers should have the sole interest -people’s welfare.
(10) Helen wants to depreciate the editors.
(11) Workers have no enemies except their masters.
(12) The consequences of war are always fruitful.
(13) The ballot does not make a free man out of a wage slave.
(14) Workers are not free when they are well-paid for their exhausting toil.
(15) Men have followed the strong men who had the power of money.
(16) Helen wants us to be dumb and obedient s slaves in an army of destruction.
(17) The people at the helm of affairs know that workers are not very clever.
(18) Helen advises workers to follow the dictates.
(19) Helen asks workers to aggressively strike against war.
(20) It is the workers’ duty to insist upon more radical measures.
(21) Right to vote makes one feel free.
Answer:
(1) True
(2) False
(3) True
(4) False
(5) True
(6) False
(7) True
(8) False
(9) True
(10) False
(11) True
(12) False
(13) True
(14) False
(15) True
(16) False
(17) True
(18) False
(19) True
(20) True
(21) False

Vocabulary

Choose the most appropriate option.

Question 1.
Which word is related to corruption ?
(a) scanty
(b) unprincipled
(c) invasion
(d) jeopardy
Answer:
(b) unprincipled

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

Question 2.
You will create the following for yourself and for others if you drive carelessly.
(a) din
(b) jeopardy
(c) vanity
(d) inheritance
Answer:
(b) jeopardy

Question 3.
What is considered to be an essential character trait of a leader ?
(a) warrant
(b) oratory
(c) vanity
(d) inheritance
Answer:
(b) oratory

Question 4.
“ can easily overtake a wisdom. It usually common sense.”
(a) overtakes
(b) oratory
(c) vigour
(d) vanity
(e) freight
(f) overcomes
Answer:
(d) vanity

Question 5.
If you become you don’t stay
(a) freight, disparage
(b) wrought, abolished
(c) belligerent, decent
(d) grieved, unscrupulous
Answer:
(c) belligerent, decent

2. Choose the most appropriate word from the brackets to fit in the quotes.
(hideous, abolished, butchery, disparage, conquer, amenable, invade)

(1) Every nation has the right to demand proper treatment and no country should invade the territory of any other country. -Mustafa Ataturk

(2) We have abolished the death penalty for humans, so why should it continue for animals? -Brigitte Bardot

(3) Whenever you are confronted with an opponent, conquer him with love.
– Mahatma Gandhi

(4) I  will stay in jail to the end of my days before I make a butchery of my conscience, -John Bunyan

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

(5) Friendship is the source of the greatest ; pleasure and without friends even the most amenable pursuits become tedious. -St. Thomas Aquins

(6) When men are full of envy they disparage everything whether it be good or bad. -Tacitus

(7) I am, as I am; whether hideous or handsome, depends upon who is made judge. – Herman Melville

Choose a suitable word from the brackets to make a question for the answer.

Question 1.
When did you find yourself in jeopardy ?
(vigour, jeopardy, conquest)
Answer:
When my speeding car’s tyre burst on highway, I found myself in danger.

Question 2.
How could she endure the ride ?
(espouse, disparage, endure)
Answer:
No, she just couldn’t tolerate. She was feeling nauseated when the ride ended.

Question 3.
Why is his presence not persistent in the class ?
(belligerent, persistent, astray)
Answer:
Maybe, because he keeps on falling ill now and then because of his weak health.

Question 4.
What is the reason for his grieving ? (grieving, indemnities, propaganda)
Answer:
Oh ! He lost his beloved girlfriend.

Question 5.
What is the punishment for the breach of this ordinance?
(whining, ordinance, stockyard)
Answer:
You will be suspended for a month.

Question 6.
Why could he not face the situation  valiantly?
(hurly-burly, valiantly, elementally)
Answer:
He was worried for his own safety as there was no one after him to take care of his little boy.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

Question 7.
Which product of this company is espoused by this brand ambassador
(persuaded, crippled, espoused)
Answer:
The beauty soaps.

4. Frame meaningful sentences using all the words given in the set.

Question 1.
endure – persistent – vanity
Answer:
His vanity was persistent and could not be endured even by his friends.

Question 2.
oratory – skill – leader
Answer:
The political leader was blessed with the skill of oratory.

Question 3.
personality – decent – cherished
Answer:
As his family background was good he cherished a decent personality.

Question 4.
vigour – win – race
Answer:
His vigour led him to Kerala to win the boat race.

Question 5.
grieve – unprincipled – corruption
Answer:
Though the unprincipled police officer let a life of corruption his greedy friends did not grieve.

5. Each group of four words contains two words that are either adjectives or nouns or verbs. Circle these two words; then circle the ‘Adj’ if they are adjectives, and ‘N’ if they are nouns, and ‘V’ if they are verbs.

1. ( din) astray persuade ( freight) Adj (IT) V
2. (unprincipled) propaganda (amenable) valiantly (Adj) N V
3. conquest (disparage) (endure) wrought Adj N (V)
4. persuade abstraction (unabated) (persistent) (Adf) N V
5. espouse (scanty) congestion (elemental) (Adj) N V
6. (warrant) endure decent ( conquest) Adj (N) V
7. (inheritance) ( stockyard) abolished grieve Adj (N) V

Function

1. Compare the sentences in ‘A’ and ‘B’ (Synthesising Expressions) :

‘A’

‘B’

1. I know what I am talking about. I am talking about something. I know that.
2. I have entered the fight against preparedness and against the economic system under which we live. I have entered the fight against preparedness. I have entered the fight against economic system. We live under preparedness and economic system.
3. We are not free unless the men who frame and execute the laws represent the interests of the lives of the people and no other interest. The men frame the laws. The men execute the laws. They should represent the interests of the lives of the people and no other interest. We are not free unless it’s done.

2 Read the group of sentences given. From the Read, find out a single sentence covering the meaning of all these sentences:

(a) The Germans abolished the slums. They could not raise good soldiers in the slums. They found out it years ago.
Answer:
Years ago the Germans found out that they could not raise good soldiers in the slums, so they abolished the slums.

(b) It’s time your country is in danger. It’s time your liberties are in danger. Will you speak about low wages in this situation ?
Answer:
Will you speak about low wages when your country, your liberties are in danger ?

(c) Honest sweat, persistent toil and years of struggle bring them nothing. These are the things they fight for. They know this fact.
Answer:
They know the fact that honest sweat, persistent toil and years of struggle bring them nothing worth fighting for.

3. Underline the verbs and box the connectors in F. l.A and F. 2. (a), (b), (c).

Example: I know what I am talking about (F. I. A.)

1.

Sentences Connectors
1. I know what I am talking about. what
2. I have entered the fight against preparedness and against the economic system under which we live. economic system under which we live. and under which
3. We are not free unless the men who frame and execute the laws represent the interests of the lives of the people and no other interest. unless, who, and

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

2.

Sentences Connectors
(a) The Germans found out years ago that they could not raise good soldiers in the slums so they abolished the slums. that, so
(b) Will you speak about low wages when your country; and your liberties are in danger ? when, are
(c) Then know that honest sweat, persistent toil and 1 years of struggle bring them nothing on to, worth fighting for. that

4. Read the group of sentences carefully and observe how they are expressed in different ways without changing the meaning:

(1) That cheque did not get cleared. The cheque was drawn in favour of her friend. Mitali had insufficient balance in her bank account.
(a) Because of insufficient balance in Mitali’s bank account, that cheque drawn in favour of her friend did not get cleared.
(b) Mitali had insufficient balance in her bank account, therefore that cheque drawn in favour of her friend did not get cleared.
(c) That cheque which was drawn in favour of her friend did not get cleared because Mitali had insufficient balance in her bank account.

(2) It was morning. It was a summer day. I went to Ramnagar. I wanted to meet my friend. He lived there. We studied together.
(a) In the morning on a summer day, I went to Ramnagar because I wanted to meet my friend and ex-classmate who lived in that area.
(b) In the morning on a summer day, I went to meet my friend and ex-classmate living in Ramnagar.
(c) In the morning on a summer day, I went so that I could meet my friend and exclassmate living in Ramnagar.

Sentences Connectors Verbs
1. (a) Because of insufficient balance in Mitali’s bank account, that cheque drawn in favour of her friend did not get cleared. because of drawn, did not get cleared
(b) Mitali had insufficient balance in her bank account, therefore that cheque drawn in favour of her friend did not get cleared. therefore had, drann, did not get cleared
(c) That cheque which was drawn in favour of her friend did not get cleared because Mitali had insufficient balance in her bank account. which,because was drawn, did not get, had
2. (a) In the morning on a summer day, I went to Ramnagar because I wanted to meet my friend and ex-classmate who lived in that area. because and went, wanted to meet
(b) In the morning on a summer day, I went to meet my friend and ex-classmate living in Ramnagar. and went, living
(c) In the morning on a summer day, I went so that I could to meet my friend and ex-classmate living in Ramnagar. so that and went, living

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

5. Read the conversation. Underline the verbs and circle the connector.

(a) Mr Complex: I know that Mrs Doctor is very accurate in her work.
Mr Compound : Yes, she is tired today still she is examining her patients.
Miss Simple : Inspite of her illness, she has come to the hospital.

(b) Mr Complex: Do you know when Mr Baxi started his new business ?
Mr Compound : I went to its inaugural function but I have forgotten that exact date, sir.
Miss Simple : His entrepreneurial attempt took place almost two months back.

(c) Mr Complex: Though modern technology provides us various benefits, it can’t solve all problems related to human existence.
Mr Compound : Technology can be beneficial but we need to utilize it with its optimal level and sensibly.
Miss Simple : A technology in need is a technology indeed.

6. Read the following groups of sentences.

Notice that these sentences can be combined in different ways. Fill in the blanks.

(1) (for, so that, therefore, in order to)
Rohan Mehta went to the government office.
He wanted to collect his ration card.
(a) Rohan Mehta went to the government office so that he could collect his ration card. I
(b) Rohan Mehta wanted to collect his ration card therefore he went to the government office.
(c) Rohan Mehta went to the government office for collecting his ration card.

(2) (but, arrival, before, departure)
The doctor came yesterday. He wanted to examine the patient. The patient had died.
(a) Before the doctor came to examine the patient, he had died.
(b) The doctor came to examine the patient but he had died.
(c) Beforehand the arrival of the doctor for examination, the patient had died.

(3) (as, as per, under, to, so, such, that, in spite of, though, during)
The directions were given by the Science teacher. Anu and Abhi made a model of plane. It was made very successfully. It won the first prize in the competition. They had a short span of time for its making.

(a) As per the directions given by the Science teacher, Anu and Abhi made a model of plane so successfully that it won the first prize in the competition in spite of having a short span of time for its making.

(b) Under the directions of the Science teacher, Anu and Abhi made a successful model of plane to win the first prize in spite of a short span of time.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

(c) As the Science teacher directed, Anu and Abhi made a model of plane successfully that it won the first prize in the competition though there was a short span of time.

7. Join these sets of sentences in two ways. First frame a sentence with two verbs and then another sentence with only one verb.

(1) Mr Manan Patil is a senior clerk. He is not the manager. He behaves like the manager.
(a) A senior clerk, Mr Manan Patil behaves like the manager.
(b) A senior clerk, Mr Manan Patil behaves as if he were the manager.

(2) (though, but, in spite of)
Hitarth performed his role on the stage very nicely. The audience did not enjoy it much.
(a) Though Hitarth performed his role on the stage very nicely, the audience did not enjoy it.
(b) In spite of performing his role very nicely on the stage, the audience did not enjoy , it.

(3) Anurag is very slow at learning. He can’t grasp a new topic easily.
(a) As Anurag is very slow at learning he can’t grasp a new topic easily.
(b) Being very slow at learning, Anurag can’t grasp a new topic easily.

(4) The wind blew. The rain fell. The lightning flashed.
(a) As the wind began to blow, the rain fell along with flashing of lightening.
(b) The wind having blown, the rain began to fall along with flashing of lightening.

8. Read the passage. Rewrite the passage without changing the message. Do it in two ways :

(a) Covering all verbs
(b) One sentence one verb.
Some people joined the Heritage Walk. It was organized by a local newspaper. It started from Swaminarayan Temple. It ended at Jama Masjid. Participants knew for the first time the harmony saga of the city. They got introduced to the history of the city too. During the walk, the guide informed them logic and beliefs for various activities and house-structures on the heritage route.
Answer:
(a) Covering all verbs : The heritage walk, organized by a local newspaper, was joined by some people, which started from Swaminarayan temple and ended at Jama Masjid, during which the guide, informed the participants logic and beliefs for various activities and house structures, making them aware of the history and the harmony saga of the city for the first time.

(b) One sentence one verb : Some people joined the Heritage walk. It was organised by a local newspaper. It started from Swaminarayan temple. It ended at Jama Masjid. Participants knew for the first time, the harmony saga of the city.

They also got introduced to the history of the city too. During the walk, the guide informed them logic and beliefs for various activities. He also informed them about the house-structures on the heritage route.

9. Rewrite the paragraph combining the sentences whenever possible.

Centuries ago, there were no well-organized state educational institutions. There were no schools, high-schools and colleges. So, how did people get „ education ? Gurus were the pivot of educational , ”system. There were no books or notebooks.

Gurus taught the lessons orally and with practicals. Students used to go to the Guru’s house. It was called Ashram. Students stayed in the Ashram, until they finished their education. The teachers were addressed as Acharyas and pupils were called Shishyas.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

Often they lived in holy places, big towns and capitals of Kingdoms. Four Vedas, six Vedangs, the Puranas, Logic, Philosophy, Prakrit literature, Mathematics, Metaphysics, Sanskrit- Grammar, Medicine and Astronomy-cum-Astrology were the main subjects of study.

Education was free, but students from well-to-do families used to pay Gurudakshina.
Answer:
Centuries ago, there were no well- organized state educational institutions, such as schools and colleges. So how did people get education ? Gurus were the pivot of educational system.

There were no books or notebooks. Gurus taught orally and with practicals. Students used to go to Guru’s houses called ‘Ashrama’ where they stayed untill they finished their education.

Gurus were called Acharyas’ and pupils ‘Shishyas’. Often they lived in holy places, big towns and capitals of Kingdoms. Four ‘Vedas’, six ‘Vedangas’, the ‘Puranas’, Logic, Philosophy, Prakrit literature, Mathematics, Metaphysics, Sanskrit-Grammar, Medicine and Astronomy-cum-Astrology were the main subjects of study. Education was free but students from well-to-do families used to pay Gurudakshina.

Writing

Question 1.
Krutarth has been elected as the General Secretary of his school. He has to deliver a speech on his future plans and how he is going to fulfil them. Draft a speech for him in 150 words.
Answer:
My dear friends, first of all, I would like to thank each one of you for having chosen me the General Secretary of the school. Over the years, I have witnessed that the bridge between the students and the school authorities is fragile. Most students hesitate to gap this bridge.

They fear that their problem may not bear a serious tone or it may fall on  deaf ears. I will represent your problems to the authorities, however small or negligible they are. This is my sincere assurance to you.

I will play the role of a mediator to bring about a solution where all will be benefited. Always feel free to approach me and I shall always be ever willing to serve you. Thank you once again for giving me this privilege to serve you.

Question 2.
Helen Keller was deaf, dumb and blind but nowadays she is considered a very inspiring figure. Write a paragraph using these points:
Birthdate: June 27, 1880 – Birthplace: West Tuscumbia, Alabama – early childhood and illness – formal education-first deaf – blind person to earn a bachelor of arts degree -writings -death: June 1, 1968 – posthumous honuors
Answer:
Helen Keller was born on June 27, 1880 in Tuscumbia in Alabama, U.S. She died on June 1, 1968. She was an Author, Political Activities and a lecturer. She studied at Harvard University.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

She was the first blind person to earn Bachelor of Arts degree. Anne Sullivan was responsible for her worldwide fame. When she was 19 months old, she became deaf and blind as a result of meningitis. She mastered Braille. Her birthday is commemorated as ‘Helen Keller Day’.

This was authorized by Jimmy Carter in 1980 on her 100th birth Anniversary. She proved to the workers that deaf, dumb and blind people can do what hearing and sighted people can do.

Question 3.
You are the leader of Students’ Council of your school. Write a long dialogue involving these four characters and the situation mentioned below:

Characters : Principal, Student Leader, Canteen Manager, Administrative Head
Situation: There is a rising dissatisfaction among students in your school regarding the inadequate canteen and water facilities. Students have been protesting about the only canteen in your school. There are multiple problems that have slowly risen and have led to a large scale protest across the campus. A meeting is called by the Principal in which you are one of the members. Holy will you present your case on behalf of the students? Also frame dialogues pertaining to other members.
Answer:
At the meeting. The Canteen Manager is called to resolve the issues in the presence of the principal.

Principal: Now tell me what are your problems regarding our canteen?

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

I: Sir, the quality of eatables served in the canteen is very poor. It is our common impression that it is not at all hygienic.

Principal: (To the Canteen Manager) Mr Pandey, what is your explanation regarding this . complaint ?

Canteen Manager : Sir, you know that the charges fixed for the eatables are very low, still we provide them as good as we can. Please reconsider the charges and there would be no complaint afterwards.

Principal: Reconsideration of the charges is a different issue; we will sort it out, but there should not be any compromise in hygenic eatables.

Canteen Managers: Sorry, sir. Now onwards, I will take care. But please take my point in consideration.

Principal: OK, we’ll resolve it soon. Well, boys and girls, any other problem?

Sanket: So many sir. Cleanliness is not observed in the canteen. Tables are always messy. Leftovers are garbaged open in a corner.
We don’t get purified water to drink. The boys working there are untidy and mannerless.

Principal: OK, OK, (To Canteen Manager) what about these issues? You don’t deserve to be sympathised.

Canteen Manager : Sir, For a few weeks, our R.O.system has gone out of order.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

I will get it repaired soon; and regarding my boys, I will strictly order them to keep tidy and behave mannerly. As far as cleanliness is concerned,
I myself will take care of it. Now onwards you will not have any complaint against me about these issues. Please allow me a week’s time and I will get  everything resolved upto your satisfaction, Sir, I’m sorry for all this.

Principal: This is the last warning to you. If the things are not brought in order in a week’s time, I will have to think otherwise.

Canteen Manager : Once more sorry, Sir. I will not give you any scope of complaint hence on.

Activity

1. Search on the net about ‘World’s Best Orators’. Read about any one extra-ordinary orator and present the details to your class.
Note: Students will browse over net and collect details about extra-ordinary orators themselves. Then they will present the details to their class.

2. Try to find out information on ‘Braille Script’.
Note: Students can visit BPA in Ahmedabad or browse over the net to collect this information.

Project

Go to a blind people’s school / organisation. Talk to the blind people there and note down their political views.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

Note: Students will carry out the project themselves. They will visit a blind people’s organisation, interact with them and note down their political views.

Strike Against War Summary in Gujarati

હેલન કેલર બાળપણથી જીવનમાં એટલી બધી વિપદાઓનો સામનો કરી ચૂકી હતી કે તેના માટે જીવન એક સંગ્રામ બની ચૂક્યું હતું. એમાંય એની સંવેદના અતિ તીવ્ર હતી. અહીં કાર્નેગી હૉલ, ન્યૂ યૉર્ક ખાતે જે ભાષણ આપ્યું એમાં એ યુદ્ધ (કઠિનાઈઓ કે દુર્દેવ) સામે ની સામે પડકાર ફેંકવાનો સંદેશ આપે છે.

શરૂઆતમાં એ અખબારના તંત્રી મિત્રોને જણાવે છે કે “તે સિદ્ધાંત વગરના લોકોના હાથમાં પડી ગઈ છે.” એવું તેમનું માનવું ભૂલ ભરેલું છે. તે ઇંગ્લેન્ડ, ફ્રાન્સ, જર્મની, ઑસ્ટ્રિયાથી સમાચારપત્રો અને સામયિકો મંગાવે છે અને વાંચે છે. તેણી જે અર્થવ્યવસ્થામાં તે રહે છે, તેની સામે જંગ છેડવા માગે છે.

કામદારોની ફરિયાદો અને બળવાનો અવાજ સત્તાધારી અવાજ તળે દબાઈ જાય છે. એ સહ્ય નથી. તે કહે છે કે તેમની ચારેય બાજુ દુશ્મનો છે. કામના પ્રમાણમાં કંગાળ વેતન મેળવતા કામદારોના ચૂલા સળગતા રાખવા લડત અનિવાર્ય છે. કામદારો જાણે છે કે તેમના માલિકો જ તેમના દુશ્મન છે, છતાંય દેશ તરફથી વફાદારી માટે તેમણે ગુલામી સ્વીકારી લીધી છે.

ઉચ્ચ સ્થાનોએ બેઠેલા ધનપતિઓ કે અધિકારીઓ આ કામદારોને મૂર્ખ માની બેઠા છે. સરકાર જેમને લાભ અને સમ્માન આપે છે, તેઓ તો દેશ માટે લડવાના જ, પણ કામદારોનું શું? તેઓ તો બીજા લોકોના દેશ માટે નિઃસ્વાર્થ મજૂરી કરે છે અને કંગાળ પરિસ્થિતિમાં જીવે છે. તેમને પોતાની આઝાદી નથી. રોજના આઠથી દસ કલાક જાત નીચોવી કામ કરતા એ લોકોને મળતું વેતન પણ કેટલું કંગાળ છે!

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

તેમનાં બાળકો મિલ અને ફેક્ટરીમાં કામ કરે છે, સ્ત્રીઓ ગરીબીમાં શરમજનક જંદગી જીવે છે. પગાર માટે અગર એ લોકો હડતાલ પાડે, તો તેમને જેલમાં ધકેલી દેવામાં આવે છે અને તેમને મૂળભૂત ન્યાય પણ મળતો નથી.

સદીઓથી જેમની પાસે મની અને મસલ પાવર છે તેમની ગુલામી વેઠતા આવ્યા છીએ. જેમ જેમ સંસ્કૃતિ આગળ વધતી ગઈ તેમ વધારે લોકો ગુલામીનો ભોગ બનતા ગયા. અમીરો માટે મહેલો બાંધનારને બદલામાં શું મળે છે? હવે જરૂરી છે કામદારોની

તૈયારીની જે પુનર્વ્યવસ્થા અને પુનર્નિમાણ લાવી શકે. આ માટે સરકારની રાહ જોવાની જરૂર નથી. લોકોએ જ મળીને તેમના ઉત્કર્ષના માર્ગ વિશે પ્રયત્નો કરવા પડશે. દેશના તમામે તમામ વિભાગોમાં એ જોવું આવશ્યક છે કે આ કામદારોનાં બાળકો સ્વસ્થ જન્મે યોગ્ય પોષણ પ્રાપ્ત કરે, સુશિક્ષિત બને, બુદ્ધિશાળી બને અને દેશની સેવા માટે યોગ્ય બને. એવા તમામ કાનુન, કાયદાઓ તેમજ સંસ્થાઓને તોડી પાડો કે જે શાંતિનું હનન કરતાં હોય. મૂક બની જોઈ રહેશો નહિ, સર્જનના સૈન્યમાં વીર બનો.

Glossary (શબ્દાર્થ)

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War 1
GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War 2GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War 3GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War 4

Phrases and Idioms

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War 5
GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War 6

ભાષાંતર

(જાન્યુઆરી 5, 1916ના રોજ કાર્નેગી હૉલ, ન્યૂ યોર્ક શહેર ખાતે હેલન કેલર દ્વારા અપાયેલું ભાષણ) શરૂઆત કરતાં મારે મારા સન્મિત્રો, સંપાદકો અને અન્યો જે મારા પર દયા ખાવા લાગ્યા છે, તેમને થોડુંક કહેવું છે. કેટલાક લોકો દુ:ખી છે, કારણ કે તેઓ માને છે કે હું એવા સિદ્ધાંતવિહીન લોકોના હાથમાં છું કે જેઓ મને બિનપ્રચલિત કારણો સ્વીકારવા અને તેમના પ્રચારની પ્રવક્તા બનાવવા સમજાવી રહ્યા છે.

પણ આજે અને હંમેશ માટે એક વાત સમજાઈ જવી જોઈએ કે મારે તેમની દયાની જરૂર નથી; કે હું તેમનામાંથી કોઈનું સ્થાન લેવા માગતી નથી. હું શું કહી રહી છું એ હું (બરાબર) જાણું છું. મારી માહિતીના સ્રોત અન્ય કોઈના

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

હોય તેટલા જ સારા અને વિશ્વસનીય છે. મારે વાંચવા માટે ઇંગ્લેન્ડ, ફ્રાન્સ, જર્મની અને ઑસ્ટ્રિયાથી અખબારો આવે છે. હું જેટલાને મળી છું તેટલા તમામ સંપાદકો આ ન કરી શકે. હું મળી ચૂકી છું, તેમાંથી ઘણા બધા વંચાઈ ગયેલાં ફ્રેંચ અને જર્મન (અખબાર) મેળવે છે. ના, હું તંત્રીઓનું અવમૂલ્યન નહિ કરું.

એ એક ગજા ઉપરાંત કામ કરેલો અને ગેરસમજ પામેલો વર્ગ છે. એમને એ યાદ રાખવા દો, અલબત્ત, અગર હું એમની સિગારેટનો સળગતો છેડો જોઈ શકતી નથી, તો એ લોકો પણ અંધારામાં સોયમાં દોરો પરોવી શકે તેમ નથી.

સજ્જનો, મને એક નિષ્પક્ષ અને તરફેણ વગરના ક્ષેત્ર(કામગીરી)ની અપેક્ષા છે. આપણે જે સુસજ્જતા અને અર્થવ્યવસ્થા હેઠળ રહીએ છીએ, એની વિરુદ્ધ મેં જંગ છેડ્યો છે. અને એને હું અંત સુધી લડી લેવા માગું છું, એમાં હું કોઈ બાંધછોડ ઇચ્છતી નથી.

સંપૂર્ણ વ્યવસ્થાતંત્ર કાર્યરત થઈ ચૂક્યું છે. કર્મચારીઓના વિરોધના સૂર અને ફરિયાદોથી ઉપર ઊઠીને સત્તાધિકારીનો અવાજ સંભળાઈ રહ્યો છે. ‘મિત્રો”, એ કહે છે, “સાથી કર્મચારીઓ, દેશભક્તો; તમારો દેશ ભયમાં છે !”

આપણી ચારે બાજુ દુશ્મનોએ ભરડો લીધો છે. આપણામાં અંદારોઅંદર કશુંય (વિવાદ) નથી, (પરંતુ) આપણા દુશ્મનો પૅસિફિક અને ઍટલૅન્ટિક સમુદ્ર (પડાવવા) ઇચ્છે છે. જુઓ તો ખરા, બેલ્જિયમના શા હાલ થયા. સર્બિયાનું પ્રારબ્ધ ધ્યાનમાં લો.

જ્યારે તમારો દેશ ભયમાં હોય ત્યારે શું તમે ઓછા વેતન, તમને , મળવી જોઈતી સ્વતંત્રતા વિશે ગણગણાટ કરશો? ઈસ્ટ રિવર પાર કરીને આવેલા વિજેતા જર્મન લશ્કર દ્વારા કરાયેલ માનહાનિ સાથે સરખાવતાં તમે જે ત્રાસ સહન કર્યો છે, તે તો કોઈ વિસાતમાં નથી; તમારું બબડવાનું છોડી દો અને તમારું ઘર તેમજ રાષ્ટ્રધ્વજ બચાવવા કામે લાગી પડો. લશ્કર ઊભું કરો, નૌકાદળ ઊભું કરો અને વફાદાર સ્વતંત્ર નાગરિકની જેમ હુમલાખોરો(દુશ્મનો)નો સામનો કરવા તૈયાર થઈ જાઓ.”

શું કર્મચારીઓ આ જાળમાં ફસાશે? શું તેઓને ફરી મૂર્ખ બનાવાશે? મને આ બાબતનો ડર છે. આ લોકો આ પ્રકારની ભાષણબાજીમાં જલદી આવી જાય છે. કર્મચારીઓ જાણે છે કે તેમના માલિકો સિવાય અન્ય કોઈ તેમના દુશ્મન નથી.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

તેઓ (સારી રીતે) – જાણે છે કે તેમના નાગરિકત્વના પેપર્સ (દસ્તાવેજો) તેમની પત્નીઓ કે બાળકોની સલામતીની ખાતરી આપતાં નથી. તેઓ (એ પણ) જાણે છે કે તેમનો પ્રામાણિક પસીનો, સતત મહેનત અને વર્ષોનો સંઘર્ષ તેમને વિરોધ કરવા યોગ્ય બનાવી શક્યાં નથી. છતાંય (તેમના) બાલીશ હૃદયમાં ઊંડે ઊંડે પોતાનાથી જ આ દેશ છે એમ માને છે. ‘આ ગુલામોનું આ તે કેવું મિથ્યાભિમાન !

વૈભવી આવાસોમાં રહેતા ચાલાક લોકો એ (સારી રીતે) જાણે છે કે (તેમના) કર્મચારીઓ કેટલા બાળકબુદ્ધિના તેમજ મૂર્ખ છે. તેઓ જાણે છે કે અગર સરકાર તેમને ખાખી ગણવેશ પહેરાવી, (હાથમાં) રાયફલ આપી બેંડ અને ધજાપતાકા સાથે મોકલી આપે તો તેઓ બહાદુરીથી પોતાના જ દુશ્મનો સાથે લડવા આગળ વધશે.

તેમને શીખવવામાં આવે છે, બહાદુરો તેમના દેશના માન ખાતર બલિદાન આપે છે. આવો તથ્યવિહીન વિચાર માટે કેટલું ચૂકવવું પડે – લાખો

યુવાનોનાં જીવન; અન્ય લાખો જીવનભર અપંગ તેમજ અંધ થઈ જાય; હજુ વધારે લાખો માનવજીવનનું અસ્તિત્વ જોખમમાં મુકાઈ જાય; પેઢીઓની સિદ્ધિઓ અને અસ્મિતા ક્ષણભરમાં નેસ્તનાબૂદ થઈ જાય – અને આ બધી આપદાઓ પછી પણ કોઈનું કલ્યાણ (ભલું) થવાનું નથી !

આવાં ભયંકર બલિદાનો તો જ બુદ્ધિ ગ્રાહ્ય બને જો તમે જે દેશ માટે બલિદાન આપો અને તમારો દેશ કહો છો એ તમને ખોરાક, કપડાં, ઘર પૂરું પાડે, હૂંફ (સલામતી) આપે (તેમજ) તમારાં | બાળકોને શિક્ષણ આપે તેમજ તેમની સારસંભાળ રાખે.

મારા માનવા મુજબ કર્મચારીઓ એ માનવનાં સૌથી નિઃસ્વાર્થી બાળકો છે જેઓ અન્ય લોકોના દેશ; અન્યોના ભૂભાગ, અન્યોની સ્વતંત્રતા માટે તેમજ અન્યોના સુખચેન માટે મજૂરી કરે છે, જીવે છે અને મારે છે.

આ કર્મચારીઓને પોતાની સ્વતંત્રતા નથી, તેમને આઠથી દસ કલાક કામે જોતરવામાં આવે છે ત્યારે તેઓ સ્વતંત્ર નથી. પોતાની જાતને નીચોવી. નાખતી કાળી મજૂરી કરે છે અને બદલામાં તુચ્છ વેતન મળે છે ત્યારે તેઓ સ્વતંત્ર નથી.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

જ્યારે તેમનાં બાળકોને મિલ કે કારખાનાંઓમાં કામ કરવું જ પડે નહિ તો ભૂખે મરે અને તેમની સ્ત્રીઓને ગરીબાઈને લીધે શરમજનક જીવન ગુજારવું પડે છે ત્યારે તેઓ સ્વતંત્ર નથી. માનવ તરીકે જ્યારે તેઓ જ્યારે મૂળભૂત ન્યાયની માગણી કરવા કે વેતન વધારવા હડતાળ પર જાય ત્યારે તેમને ભેગા કરી જેલમાં ધકેલી દેવામાં આવે છે ત્યારે તેઓ સ્વતંત્ર નથી.

જ્યાં સુધી તે લોકો જેઓ કાયદા ઘડે અને તેમનું અમલીકરણ કરાવે છે તેઓ અન્ય કોઈ બાબતમાં રસ રાખ્યા સિવાય માત્ર લોકોના જીવનમાં રસ રાખી તેનું પ્રતિનિધિત્વ ન કરે ત્યાં સુધી આપણે સ્વતંત્ર નથી. મતદાન વેતનગરા ગુલામને સ્વતંત્ર માનવામાં પલટાવી શકતું નથી.

વિશ્વમાં સાચા અર્થમાં સ્વતંત્ર અને લોકશાહી રાષ્ટ્રની ક્યારેય હસ્તી રહી નથી. અનિશ્ચિત કાળથી માણસો આંધળી વફાદારીથી જેમની પાસે પૈસા અને લશ્કરની શક્તિ છે તેવા શક્તિશાળી માણસોને અનુસરતાં આવ્યા છે.

અરે ! યુદ્ધભૂમિમાં તેમની પોતાની લાશોના ઢગલા ખડકાયા છે; તેમણે શાસકોની જમીનો ખેડી છે (પણ સામે છે) તેમની કાળી મજૂરીનાં ફળ (પણ) તેમણે લૂંટી લીધાં છે. તેમણે મહેલો, પિરામિડો, મંદિરો અને દેવળો બાંધ્યાં છે અને તેમાં ક્યાંય સાચી સ્વતંત્રતાનું સ્મારક રચાયું નથી.

જેમ જેમ સભ્યતા વધારેને વધારે સંકુલ થતી ગઈ, વધારે ને વધારે કર્મચારીઓને ગુલામ બનાવાતા ગયા, અત્યારે હાલમાં પણ તેઓ ચલાવે છે તે યંત્રોના પૂર્વાઓથી વિશેષ કશું નથી. રોજેરોજ તેમણે રેલવે-રસ્તા, પૂલ, બહુમાળી મકાન માલસામાન લઈ જતી ગાડી, વહાણની સ્ટીમરૂમ, પ્રાણીઓના વાડા તેમજ દરિયાની સપાટી ઉપર તેમજ સપાટી નીચેનાં જોખમોનો સામનો કરવો જ પડે છે.

તેઓ વાહનવ્યવહાર કરી આપણી જીવનજરૂરિયાતની કીમતી ચીજવસ્તુઓ જે આપણું જીવન શક્ય બનાવે છે તેમને એક સ્થાનેથી બીજા સ્થાને પહોંચાડે છે અને તેમને બદલામાં શું મળે છે? ક્ષુલ્લક પગાર, અમીટ ગરીબાઈ, ભાડાં અને કરનાં ભારણ અને યુદ્ધની નુકસાન ભરપાઈ?

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

કર્મચારીઓને જે મેળવવાની તૈયારી છે તે તેમનાં સમગ્ર જીવનનું પુનર્ગઠન અને પુનર્વ્યવસ્થાપન છે કે જે કોઈ રાજકારણીઓ કે સરકારે ક્યારેય કરવા પ્રયત્ન કર્યો નથી. વર્ષો પહેલાં જર્મનોને લાગ્યું કે ઝુંપડપટ્ટીમાંથી કદાપિ સારા સૈનિકો મેળવી શકાશે નહિ અને તેથી તેમણે ઝૂંપડપટ્ટીઓ નેસ્તનાબૂદ કરી દીધી.

તેમણે એ પણ ધ્યાનમાં લીધું કે બધા લોકોમાં સભ્યતાના થોડાક પાયાના અંશ પડેલા છે : સુચારુ રહેઠાણ, સ્વચ્છ શેરીઓ, ઓછું હોવા છતાં આરોગ્યદાયક ભોજન, યોગ્ય વૈદકીય સારસંભાળ અને તેમના વ્યવસાયમાં કર્મચારીઓને યોગ્ય સલામતી વ્યવસ્થા જે થવું જોઈએ તેનો તો આ માત્ર એક નાનો અંશ છે.

સરકાર(રાજ્યવહીવટ)માં દબાણપૂર્વક આ સુધારા લાવવા એ તમારું કામ (ફરજ) છે. સરકાર શું કરી શકે અને શું નહિ એ બાબતમાં વધારે વાત ન કરીએ. યુદ્ધની યાતનાઓ વચ્ચે દરેક યુદ્ધખોર રાષ્ટ્ર આ કામ કર્યા છે.

ખાનગી નિગમો કરતાં સરકારોએ દરેક પાયાના | ઉદ્યોગનું સારી રીતે વ્યવસ્થાપન કર્યું છે. હજુ વધારે આવશ્યક પગલાં લેવા માટે આગ્રહ રાખવાની તમારી ફરજ છે. એ જોવાની પણ તમારી ફરજ છે કે કોઈ પણ બાળક ઔદ્યોગિક

એકમ, ખાણ કે દુકાનમાં રોજગારી ન કરે અને એવા કોઈ કામમાં બિનજરૂરી ન જોડાય કે જેમાં તેને અકસ્માત કે બિમારીનો ભોગ બનવું પડે. એ તમારી ફરજ છે કે તેઓ તેમને ધૂળ-ધુમાડા, ગંદકી તેમજ ભીડભાડથી મુક્ત શહેરો આપે.

તેઓ તમને પોષણક્ષમ વેતન આપે તે જોવાનું તમારું કામ છે. જ્યાં સુધી કાયમી ધોરણે દરેક વ્યક્તિને) રાષ્ટ્રના દરેકે દરેક વિભાગમાં આ પ્રકારની સજ્જતા અમલમાં મુકાવી જોઈએ એ જોવાનું તમારું કામ છે. સારી રીતે જન્મ પામે, સુપોષિત થાય, યોગ્ય રીતે શિક્ષિત, હોશિયાર (સમજદાર) અને દેશસેવાને યોગ્ય ન બને ત્યાં સુધી બધા જ કાયદા-કાનૂન અને સંસ્થાઓ કે જે શાંતિ ડહોળે અને યુદ્ધની ક્રૂરતા લાવે તેમને તોડી પાડો.

GSEB Solutions Class 12 English Unit 6 Read 1 Strike Against War

લોકોને મોતને ઘાટ ઉતારતાં ગૅસ બૉમ્બ અને અન્ય વિનાશક સાધનો બનાવતાં ઉત્પાદન એકમોને તોડી પાડો. લાખો માનવોને માટે મોત અને યાતના લાવનાર સજ્જતાઓને તોડી પાડો. વિસર્જનના આ લશ્કરમાં મૂક તેમજ આજ્ઞાકારી બનશો નહિ. સર્જનના લશ્કરમાં નાયક બનો.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.