GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Gujarat Board GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.

Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

GSEB Class 8 Social Science Nationalism in India Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Answer the following questions:

Question 1.
What factors played a major role in the rise of nationalism in India?
Answer:
The main factors that played a major role in the rise of nationalism in India are as follows :
1. Political Reasons: Before the British came to India, the nation was divided into small and big princely states. The British defeated many kings and set up their rule all over the country. Though they implemented a uniform administrative system, the British rule was not conducive and Indians started protesting against the it. Gradually these protests became more prominent and widespread.

2. Economic Reasons: The economic policies of the British ruined India financially. The British would take raw mateirals at cheap rates from India to their country. The finished good manufactured in their country were sold in India. Import duty on such products was negligible but Indian products were taxed heavily. Thus Indian goods became very expensive making them in affordable. In this cutthroat competition, Indian cottage industries could not survive. Artisans became unemployed. This made Indians realise that British policies would never allow them to prosper. The British only wanted England to prosper at the cost Indian economy. This made the Indians protest against the British and feelings of nationalism were fostered in the people of India.

3. Transport and Telecommunication: The British developed rail, water and land routes as well as the post and telegraph system for their own military, economic and political reasons. However, this turned out to be a blessing in disguise for Indians as people came closer due to these facilities. Mobility of intellectuals, artists and business class people increased. Thoughts and opinions were easily exchanged. This lessened discrimination between caste, community and region. National leaders could communicate with a large number of people through newspapers. Thus leadership was built at a national level and this contributed significantly to the achievement of Swaraj.

4. Literature and Education: Western ideas and nationalism spread with English education. Learning English made Indians familiar with latest trends of the world. Thus they were inspired by the ideas of Democracy – from the American War of Independence and of ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’- from the French revolution. People began dreaming about a bright future of independent India. Various novels, acts, stories, poems, songs, etc. written in regional languages spread the message of national unity and devotion.

5. Newspapers: Newspapers made an important contribution in spreading awareness about nationalism. Dailies published from Bengal, Mumbai and Chennai awakened the feelings of nationalism in people’s hearts.

6. Magnificent and Rich Heritage of India :

  • Ancient archaeologist Alexander Cunningham and his assistants excavated many ancient sites and discovered remains depicting the rich heritage of India.
  • Indian archaeologists like Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni, Madho Swarup Vats and Rakhal Das Bannerjee continued the excavations and unearthed remains of majestic civilizations.
  • Ancient Indian books on medical science, astrophysics, spirituality, etc. were translated into English so that Indians and the world came to know them. All these things fostered the feelings of pride and nationalism.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Question 2.
Describe the activities of the Indian National Congress in its initial phase.
Answer:
It was due to the efforts of Sir Allan Octavian Hume (A. O. Hume) that the Indian National Congress
was established in December 1885. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held on 28th December 1885, at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit School in Mumbai. Vyomeshchandra Bannerjee was its first president and 72 representatives from various regions were present.

Leaders like Dadabhai Navroji, Gopalkrishna Gokhale, Firoz Shah Mehta, Badruddin Taiyabji, K. T. Telang, Dinshaw Vachcha, etc. were present at the first session of the Indian National Congress where many problems related to the nation were discussed. In the initial stages (1885-1905) the activities of the Indian National Congress were moderate. Demands for more political rights, including more Indians in government services, debt relief to farmers, revival of cottage industries, etc. were made. The British government turned these demands down and this fact laid a strong foundation for the freedom struggle.

Question 3.
What were the consequences of the partition of Bengal?
or
Write a short note on the ‘Bang-Bhang’ revolution.
Answer:
The Bang-Bhang movement was led with three main objectives :

  1. To trade and use Indian (Swadeshi) goods only,
  2. To boycott imported (British) goods and
  3. To acquire national education and boycott English education.

Under the leadership of renowned members like Surendranath Bannerjee, Bipin Chandra Pal, Arvind Ghosh, etc. of the Indian National Congress, a committee was formed to spread the protest against the partition of Bengal by urging Indians to boycott foreign goods.

This message was spread through newspapers, processions and meetings. Factories producing swadeshi goods were set up. Thus there was a sharp decline in the use of foreign. goods. Since many students participated in the protest against the Bang Bhang movement, punitive actions such as expelling them from schools and colleges were levied S by the British government. So, 25 national secondary schools and 300 national primary schools were started in Bengal in 1907 C.E. Rabindranath Tagore had started the ‘Vishwabharti School’ at Shanti Niketan.

Question 4.
How did the need for national education arise in India?
OR
Write a short note on: National Education
Answer:
National education was the third important objective of the Bang-Bhang revolution. Since many students participated in the protest against the Bang Bhang movement, punitive actions such as expelling them from schools and colleges were levied by the British government. So, 25 national secondary schools and 300 national primary schools were started in Bengal in 1907 C.E. Rabindranath Tagore had started the ‘Vishwabharti School’ at Shanti Niketan in 1901 C.E. Pundit Malviyaji established the Benares Hindu University. In this way by boycotting government education and to increase the feeling of nationalism in the youth national education was started in the country.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

2. Answer the following in one or two sentences.

Question 1.
Define nationalism.
Answer:
Nationalism is a feeling of pride and belonging towards one’s nation. It is also a feeling willingness to sacrifice everything one has for the nation if the need arises.

Question 2.
What do you understand by the moderates? Name them.
Answer:
The leaders who believed in acquiring political rights through constitutional measures were known as the ‘Moderates.’ Leaders like Dadabhai Navroji, Surendranath Bannerjee, Gopalkrishna Gokhale, Firozshah Mehta, etc. who adopted this attitude were known as the ‘Moderates.’

Question 3.
What do you understand by the extremists? Name them.
Answer:
The leaders who followed the policy of aggression and revolution were known as the ‘Extremists.’ These leaders wanted to acquire self-rule as their right and not as a favour. The triplet leaders, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal fondly known as ‘Lai, Bal and Pal’ were prominent leaders known as the ‘Extremists’.

Question 4.
How was the day of the Partition of Bengal (Bang Bhang) observed?
Answer:
The day of the partition of Bengal was observed as a ‘Sad Day’ (Day of National Mourning). The day was also observed as ‘Day of Unity’ as per Rabindranath Tagore’s suggestion.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Question 5.
Who played an important role In the establishment of the Muslim League?
Answer:
Religious heads of Muslims – Aga Khan, the Nawab of Dhaka – Salimullah Khan, Viceroy Minto and his private secretary Dunlop Smith played a vital role in the establishment of the Muslim League.

Question 6.
Who established the Home Rule League?
Answer:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Madam Annie Besant established the ‘Home Rule’ League.

Question 7.
Where was Subhash Chandra Bose born?
Answer:
Subhash Chandra Bose was born in Cuttack city of Orissa (Odisha).

Question 8.
How did Subhash Chandra Bose reach Japan?
Answer:
On January 17, 1941, at the stroke of midnight, Subhash Chandra Bose escaped from house arrest. He disguised himself as a Pathan and reached Berlin (Germany) via Peshawar, Kabul and Moscow. He then went to Japan via Sumatra.

Question 9.
How was Azad Hind Fauj formed?
Answer:
Captain Mohan Singh, an Indian soldier of the British army, formed the ‘Azad Hind Fauj’ in 1942 C.E. with Indian soldiers who had surrendered to Japan as prisoners of war during the Second World War.

Question 10.
Which slogans were given by Subhash Chandra Bose?
Answer:
Subhash Chandra Bose gave the slogans ‘Chalo Delhi!’ and ‘Jai Hind’ to the Azad Hind Fauj and the nation respectively.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Question 11.
Where was the Provisional government formed?
Answer:
A provisional government, Aarzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind was established in Singapore in October 1943.

3. Identify me.

Question 1.
Indian National Congress was formed due to my efforts.
Answer:
A. O. Hume

Question 2.
I adopted the policy of Divide and Rule in India.
Answer:
Lord Curzon

Question 3.
The novel Anand math’ was written by me.
Answer:
Bankim- Chandra Chattopadhyaya

Question 4.
I was the first president of the Indian National Congress.
Answer:
Vyomeshchandra Bannerjee

Question 5.
Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it’.
Answer:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak (Lokmanya Tilak)

4. Match the items in column ‘A’ with those in column ‘B’ appropriately.

‘A’ ‘B’
1. Rabindranath Tagore 1. New India
2. Lokmanya Tilak 2. Kesarl
3. Lala Lajpat Rai 3. The Common Will
4. Bipin Chandra Pal 4. Shere-e-Punjab
5. Annie Besant 5. Shanti Niketan
6. Amrut Bazaar Patrika

Answer:
(1 – 5),
(2 – 2),
(3 – 4),
(4 – 1),
(5 – 3).

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

5. Write a short note on ‘Azad Hind Fauj’.
Azad Hind Fauj
Answer:
In 1942 C.E, Captain Mohan Singh an Indian soldier in the British army framed the ‘Azad Hind Eauj’ with the help of other Indian soldiers who had surrendered to Japan as war prisoners. However, when Mohan Singh had to resign his post, Rasbihari Bose appointed Subhash Chandra Bose as the chief of the ‘Azad Hind Fauj’ on 4th July 1943. He was given the honorary title of ‘Netaji.’ Netaji gave the slogans ‘Chalo Delhi’ and ‘Jai Hind’ to the Azad Hind Fauj. He toured countries of South-East Asia and appealed to Indians there to sacrifice all for India’s freedom with the words ‘You give me blood and I will give you freedom.’

(‘Turn mujhe khoon do, main tumhe azadi doonga.’) Subhash Chandra Bose established the Aarzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (Acting Government to free India) in Singapore in October 1943. This government declared war against England and America. Subhash Chandra Bose reorganised the Azad Hind Fauj. He became the Chief of Army and of the Aarzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind. The soldiers were properly trained and divided into various battalions. The Fauj was victorious at many fronts on the Eastern Border of India, but had to retreat dur to shortage of food supply and heavy rain. In this way the contribution of the Azad Hind Fauj towards our freedom struggle was quite noteworthy.

Activities

  1. Visit any social organization and know about its system of working.
  2. Prepare a newspaper article to make people aware of any one current problem being faced by India.
  3. Assume that you were a student in the year 1905 and the Swadeshi movement was on the move in the country. Make posters appealing people to join the movement.
  4. Make a list of Swadeshi and foreign goods that you observe around you nowadays.
  5. Make a list of various slogans which became famous during the freedom struggle of India.

GSEB Class 8 Social Science Nationalism in India Intext Questions and Answers

Question 1.
How did English education prove to be advantageous or disadvantageous for the Indians?
Answer:
Education in English paved the way for the rise of Indian nationalism. Western ideas and nationalism spread with English education. Learning English made Indians familiar with latest trends of the world. Thus they were inspired by the ideas of Democracy – from the American War of Independence and of ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity- from the French revolution. People began dreaming about a bright future of independent India.

The educated public of India came closer to one another. They came to know and understand each other’s thoughts. The feeling of being united and protesting against the injustice meted out and the exploitation done by the British government was awakened among Indians. The emotions of nationalism and new awakening developed in the educated public. In this way, English education actually played an important role in developing the feeling of nationalism among Indians.

Question 2.
How did the newspapers manage to arouse the feelings of nationalism among Indians?
Answer:
Newspapers criticized the self-imposed rule practised by the British and encouraged feelings of revolt against the British government. They voiced the harassment of the public and laid bare the unjust attitude and the exploitation practised by the British government. Newspapers developed the feeling of nationalism and the desire for freedom among the people of India. In this way, newspapers awakened the feeling of nationalism among Indians in the 19th century.

Question 3.
What could have been the possible ill-effects of the partition of Bengal?
Answer:
The main ill-effects of the partition of Bengal –

  • Communalism could have been encouraged
  • The seeds of partition of India could have been sown with the partition of Bengal
  • The nationalist movement could have become weak
  • Revolutionary nationalist activities could have started in the country and
  • There could have been permanent hatred and enmity between the Hindu and the Muslim communities.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Question 4.
Why did Lokmanya Tilak start the celebration of ‘Ganesh Chaturthi’ and ‘Shivaji Jayanti’?
Answer:
To develop the feeling of nationalism and unity among the Marathas and to bring about an awakening in the people, Lokmanya Tilak started celebrating ‘Ganesh Chaturthi’ and ‘Shivaji Jayanti’.

Question 5.
What if the Azad Hind Fauj had achieved complete victory over the British India?
Answer:
If the ‘Azad Hind Fauj’ had achieved complete victory over the British India. India would not have been divided into two and instead of 1947 C.E., we would have attained freedom in the year 1944 C.E. itself. The supreme leader of the Azad Hind Fauj’. Subhash Chandra Bose would have established a government in free India and would have become the Prime Minister of India himself.

GSEB Class 8 Social Science Nationalism in India Additional Important Questions and Answers

Choose the correct alternative from those given below each question:

Question 1.
Where did the mordern concept of nationalism originate?
A. In USA
B. In India
C. In Europe
D. In Russia
Answer:
C. In Europe

Question 2.
Which British policy ruined India?
A. Taxation policy
B. Economic policy
C. Political policy
D. Religious policy
Answer:
B. Economic policy

Question 3.
Which inspiration did India get from the American struggle for freedom?
A. Of Democracy
B. Of Socialism
C. Of Equality
D. Of Independence
Answer:
A. Of Democracy

Question 4.
Through which revolution did India get the inspiration for feelings of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity (brotherhood)?
A. Through the English revolution
B. Through the French revolution
C. Through the American revolution
D. Through the Russian revolution
Answer:
B. Through the French revolution

Question 5.
Which western archaeologist found remains of Indian culture depicting India’s rich heritage?
A. Max Mueller
B. Ferguson
C. William Ham
D. Cunningham
Answer:
D. Cunningham

Question 6.
With the efforts of which retired English officer was the Indian National Congress established?
A. Sir Charles Wood
B. Lord Macaulay
C. A. O. Hume
D. Lord Mayo
Answer:
C. A. O. Hume

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Question 7.
Who was the president of the first session of the Indian National Congress?
A. Vyomeshchandra Bannerjee
B. Dadabhai Nairobi
C. Surendranath Bannerjee
D. Badruddin Taiyabji
Answer:
A. Vyomeshchandra Bannerjee

Question 8.
In the beginning, …………………………. was not one of the demands put up by the Indian National Congress to the British government.
A. revival of cottage industries
B. debt relief to farmers
C. appointing Hindi judges in courts
D. more Indians in government services
Answer:
C. appointing Hindi judges in courts

Question 9.
Who implemented the ‘Divide and Rule’ policy?
A. Viceroy Lord Litton
B. Viceroy Lord Rippon
C. Viceroy Lord Canning
D. Viceroy Lord Curzon
Answer:
D. Viceroy Lord Curzon

Question 10.
Which song written by Bankimchandra became the slogan of the Bang-Bhang movement?
A. ‘Jana Gana Mama…’
B. ‘Vande Mataram’
C. ‘Jhanda ooncha rahe hamara’
D. ‘Sonar Bangla’
Answer:
B. ‘Vande Mataram’.

Question 11.
In which novel is the national song ‘Vande Mataram’?
A. Anand Math’
B. ‘Sundar Math’
C. ‘Gitanjali’
D. ‘Jyoti Math’
Answer:
A. Anand Math’

Question 12.
What was the Bang-Bhang day observed as?
A. ‘Day of Mourning’
B. ‘Independence Day
C. ‘National Day’
D. ‘Day of Protest’
Answer:
A. ‘Day of Mourning’

Question 13.
When did Lord Curzon partition Bengal?
A. In 1909 C.E.
B. In 1906 C.E.
C. In 1905 C.E.
D. In 1911 C.E.
Answer:
C. In 1905 C.E.

Question 14.
Who started the Vishwabharati Vidyalaya in Shanti Niketan in 1901 C.E.?
A. Subhash Chandra Bose
B. Kedarnath Tagore
C. Avanindranath Tagore
D. Rabindranath Tagore
Answer:
D. Rabindranath Tagore

Question 15.
Who from the following was not a leader of the ‘Moderate system’?
A. Gopalkrishna Gokhale
B. Lokmanya Tilak
C. Surendranath Bannerjee
D. Dadabhai Navroji
Answer:
B. Lokmanya Tilak

Question 16.
‘Extremist system’ means ………………… .
A. One who boycotts foreign goods.
B. One who believes in active and aggressive revolt.
C. One who believes in soft administration.
D. One who believes the British to be correct.
Answer:
B. One who believes in active and aggressive revolt.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Question 17.
Who was the main leader of the Extremist movement?
OR
Who was the main inspiration for the Extremists?
A. Vyomeshchandra Bannerjee
B. Lokmanya Tilak
C. Lala Lajpat Rai
D. Bipin Chandra Pal
Answer:
B. Lokmanya Tilak

Question 18.
Who from the following was not an Extremist leader?
A. Gopalkrishna Gokhale
B. Bipinchandra Pal
C. Lala Lajpat Rai
D. Lokmanya Tilak
Answer:
A. Gopalkrishna Gokhale

Question 19.
‘Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it.’ Who gave this slogan?
A. Dadabhai Navroji
B. Gopalkrishna Gokhale
C. Lokmanya Tilak
D. Mahatma Gandhi
Answer:
C. Lokmanya Tilak

Question 20.
Who from the following was famous as ‘Sher-e- Punjab’?
A. Firozshah Mehta
B. Lala Lajpat Rai
C. Bipin Chandra Pal
D. Shyamji Krishna Verma
Answer:
B. Lala Lajpat Rai

Question 21.
Who was killed due to being beaten up in a lathi charge while protesting against the Simon Commission?
A. Lala Lajpat Rai
B. Pt. Govind Vallabh Pant
C. Bipin Chandra Pal
D. Beil Gangadhar Tilak
Answer:
A. Lala Lajpat Rai

Question 22.
Which leader did the British accuse of provoking Indian youngsters to violent activities?
A. Lala Lajpat Rai
B. Surendranath Bannerjee
C. Gopalkrishna Gokhale
D. Bipin Chandra Pal
Answer:
D. Bipin Chandra Pal

Question 23.
When was the ‘Muslim League’ established?
A. In 1905 C.E.
B. In 1906 C.E.
C. In 1909 C.E.
D. In 1911 C.E.
Answer:
B. In 1906 C.E.

Question 24.
Where did the Congress and the Muslim League hold joint conferences in 1916 C.E.?
A. In Kolkata
B. In Mumbai
C. In Surat
D. In Lucknow
Answer:
D. In Lucknow

Question 25.
When was Subhash Chandra Bose born?
A. In 1887 C.E.
B. In 1897 C.E.
C. In 1903 C.E.
D. In 1905 C.E.
Answer:
B. In 1897 C.E.

Question 26.
Where was Subhash Chandra Bose born?
A. In Cuttack
B. In Amritsar
C. In Bhubaneshwar
D. In Ramgiri
Answer:
A. In Cuttack

Question 27.
Who was the president of the Congress Haripura session in 1938 C.E. as well as the Tripura Session in 1939 C.E.?
A. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
B. Gandhiji
C. Pt. Motilal Nehru
D. Subhash Chandra Bose
Answer:
D. Subhash Chandra Bose

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Question 28.
Which party did Subhash Chandra Bose establish?
A. Young India
B. Forward Bloc
C. Swarajya Party
D. Independent India
Answer:
B. Forward Bloc

Question 29.
Who formed the Azad Hind Fauj’?
A. The government of Japan
B. Rasbihari Bose
C. Captain Mohan Singh
D. Subhash Chandra Bose
Answer:
C. Captain Mohan Singh

Question 30.
Which honorary title was given to Subhash Chandra Bose as the chief of the Azad Hind Fauj’?
A. Sardar
B. Netaji
C. Senapati
D. Captain
Answer:
B. Netaji

Question 31.
Which slogan did Subhash Chandra Bose give to the Azad Hind Fauj?
A. ‘Inquilab Zindabad’
B. ‘Chalo Delhi’
C. ‘Vande Bharat’
D. Jai Hind’
Answer:
B. ‘Chalo Delhi’

Question 32.
Where did Subhash Chandra Bose establish the ‘provisional government’?
A. In Berlin
B. In Rangoon
C. In Tokyo
D. In Singapore
Answer:
D. In Singapore

Question 33.
What vow did Subhash Chandra Bose take?
A. “I shall never enter subjugated India.”
B. “I shall make all efforts for achieving freedom.”
C. “I shall drive the British away from India.”
D. “I shall break the shackles binding my motherland.”
Answer:
A. “I shall never enter subjugated India.”

Question 34.
On which country were nuclear bombs dropped during the Second World War?
A. USA
B. Germany
C. Japan
D. England
Answer:
C. Japan

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Give historic reasons for the following statements:

Question 1.
The economic policy of the British ruined India.
Answer:
The British would take raw materials at cheap rates from India to their country. The finished good manufactured in their country were sold in India. Import duty on such products was negligible but Indian products were taxed heavily. Thus Indian goods became very expensive making them in affordable. In this cutthroat competition, Indian cottage industries could not survive. Artisans became unemployed. This made Indians realise that British policies would never allow them to prosper. The British only wanted England to prosper at the cost Indian economy. This made the Indians protest against the British. This is how the economic policy of the British runined India.

Question 2.
The Indian National Congress was established in 1885 C.E.
Answer:
Factors like political unity and uniform administration, economic exploitation practised by the British, faster modes of travel and communication, English education, development of local literature, newspapers, awakening to India’s rich cultural heritage, etc. fostered the feelings of pride and nationalism. These factors and other regional organisations contributed to the Indian National Congress being established in 1885 C.E.

Sir A.O. Hume, a retired British officer, realized that the British Empire was not as secure as it appeared to be and due to dissatisfaction among people there were chances of a revolt like the one in 1857. To keep general dissatisfaction at bay he thought of organising a political organisation. Viceroy Lord Dufferin agreed with Hume’s idea. It was due to the efforts of Sir Allan Octavian Hume (A. O. Hume) that the Indian National Congress was established in December 1885 C.E.

Question 3.
Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal in 1905 C.E.
Answer:
The growing unity and integrity among Indians became a concern for the British. The British withdrew their support and to further weaken Indian unity Viceroy Lord Curzon adopted the ‘Divide and Rule’ policy and partitioned Bengal in 1905. Bengal was the largest province of British India and so its administration was difficult. So Viceroy Curzon partitioned Bengal, but the main intention was that he wanted to promote communal differences among the Hindus and Muslims thus weakening the momentum of political awakening among Indians.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Question 4.
National schools were set up in Bengal.
Answer:
National education was the third important objective of the Bang-Bhang revolution. Since many students participated in the protest against the Bang Bhang movement, punitive actions such as expelling them from schools and colleges were levied by the British government. So, 25 national secondary schools and 300 national primary schools were started in Bengal in 1907 C.E. Rabindranath Tagore had started the ‘Vishwabharti School’ at Shanti Niketan in 1901 C.E. Pundit Malviyaji established the Benares Hindu University. In this way by boycotting government education and to increase the feeling of nationalism in the youth national education was started in the country.

Question 5.
The Home Rule movement was started in 1916 C.E.
Answer:
Between 1916 and 1918 when the First World War had just ended, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Madam Annie Besant along with prominent Indians like Joseph Baptista, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, G.S. Kharpade, Sir S. Subramania Iyer organised a national alliance of leagues in India to demand Home Rule within the British Empire for all in India.

Fill in the blanks with proper words or numbers in the following statements:

Question 1.
A feeling of pride and belonging towards one’s nation with willingness to sacrifice everything one has for the nation if the need arises is known as ………………………. .
Answer:
nationalism

Question 2.
The mordern concept of nationalism originated in ……………………. .
Answer:
Europe

Question 3.
Before the British established their rule over India, our country lacked ……………………. unity.
Answer:
political

Question 4.
Literature of regional Indian languages spread the message of …………………… amongst Indians.
Answer:
patriotism

Question 5.
Newspapers spread awareness and encouraged the feeling of …………………….. in the hearts of people.
Answer:
nationalism

Question 6.
Indian archaeological experts …………………….. Madho Swarup Vats and Rakhal Das discovered many remains depicting the rich heritage of India.
Answer:
Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni

Question 7.
The Indian National Congress was established in the year ………………… .
Answer:
1885 C.E.

Question 8.
It was with the efforts of retired British officer …………………… that the Indian National Congress was
established.
Answer:
Sir Allan Octavian Hume (A. O. Hume)

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Question 9.
The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in ………………….. .
Answer:
Mumbai

Question 10.
…………………….. was the president of the first session of the Indian National Congress.
Answer:
Vyomeshchandra Bannerjee

Question 11.
About ………………………. members were present at the first session of the Indian National Congress.
Answer:
72

Question 12.
The work of the Indian National Congress in its initial stages was mainly ………………… .
Answer:
constitutional

Question 13.
Viceroy …………………. adopted the ‘Divide and Rule’ policy.
Answer:
Lord Curzon

Question 14.
Viceroy …………………… partitioned Bengal.
Answer:
Lord Curzon

Question 15.
……………………………. composed the song, ‘Vande Mataram’.
Answer:
Bankimchandra Chattopadhyaya

Question 16.
The day of Bengal partition was declared as ………………….. .
Answer:
Sad Day/Day of Mourning

Question 17.
The day of Bengal partition was declared as ‘Day of Unity’ on the suggestion of ………………. .
Answer:
Rabindranath Tagore

Question 18.
………………………… was one of the objectives of the Swadeshi movement started in 1905 C.E.
Answer:
National education

Question 19.
In 1901 C.E. poet laureate Rabindranath Tagore started the Vishwabharti School at ………………….. in …………………. .
Answer:
Shanti Niketan, Bengal

Question 20.
…………………….. started community celebrations of the festivals of Ganesh Chaturthi and Shivaji Jayanti (Chhatrapati Shivaji’s Birth Anniversary).
Answer:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak (Lokmanya Tilak)

Question 21.
Lala Lajpat Rai was popularly known as …………………. .
Answer:
Sher-e-Punjab

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Question 22.
……………………. died due to being beaten up in a police lathi charge.
Answer:
Lala Lajpat Rai

Question 23.
…………………… said, “I declare that the blows struck at me will be the last nail in the coffin of British rule in India.”
Answer:
Lala Lajpat Rai

Question 24.
The ……………………… believed in aggressive and active revolt against the British for attaining freedom.
Answer:
Extremists

Question 25.
The ‘ …………….’ was established in 1906 C.E. in Dhaka.
Answer:
Muslim League

Question 26.
The religious leader of the Muslims …………………….. played an important role in the establishment of the Muslim League.
Answer:
Aga Khan

Question 27.
In April 1916, Bal Gangadhar Tilak established the ‘ …………………’.
Answer:
Indian Home Rule League

Question 28.
………………….. gave following slogan, “Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it.”
Answer:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Question 29.
During the Home Rule Movement, Bal Gangadhar Tilak was given the honorary title of’………………’
Answer:
Lokmanya

Question 30.
………………………., leader of the Theosophical Society, established the ‘Home Rule League’ in September 1916.
Answer:
Madam Annie Besant

Question 31.
The agreement that was made between the Congress and the Muslim League in 1916 C.E. in Lucknow is known as the ‘ …………………..’
Answer:
Lucknow

Question 32.
Subhash Chandra Bose was born in the year …………………. .
Answer:
1897

Question 33.
Subhash Chandra Bose was born in the …………………… city of Orissa (Odisha).
Answer:
Cuttack

Question 34.
……………………… Was appointed as the president of the Congress Haripura Session in 1938 C.E.
Answer:
Subhash Chandra Bose

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Question 35.
Subhash Chandra Bose formed a new political party named ……………… in May 1939.
Answer:
Forward Bloc

Question 36.
Captain ………………………. formed the Azad Hind Fauj’.
Answer:
Mohan Singh

Question 37.
……………………….. became the chief of the Azad Hind Fauj in 1943 C.E.
Answer:
Subhash Chandra Bose

Question 38.
Subhash Chandra Bose gave the slogan ‘………………………. ’ to Azad Hind Fauj and the slogan ‘……………………… ’ to the nation.
Answer:
Chalo Delhi, Jai Hind

Question 39.
In October 1943, Subhash Chandra Bose established a ‘ …………………. government’ of free India
in Singapore.
Answer:
Provisional

Question 40.
The provisional government established by Subhash Chandra Bose declared war on ………………. and ……………….. .
Answer:
England, America

State whether the following statements are true or false:

Question 1.
The British would carry finished goods made in India to England and would bring raw material from England to India.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Indian newspapers criticized British government and awakened feelings of nationalism in Indian people.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Bengal was the largest state of British India.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Muslims protested aggressively against the partition of Bengali.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
Surendranath Bannerjee was a leader of the moderate system.
Answer:
True

Question 6.
The British had not adopted the ‘Divide and Rule policy.
Answer:
False

Question 7.
Captain Mohan Singh was the chief of the Indian army.
Answer:
False

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Question 8.
Netaji gave the slogan ‘Jai Hind’ to the people of India.
Answer:
True

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences:

Question 1.
Which were the main reasons for the rise and development of nationalism in India?
OR
Which are the main factors responsible for the rise and development of nationalism in India?
Answer:
Factors like political unity and uniform administration, economic exploitation practised by the British, faster modes of travel and communication, English education, development of local literature, newspapers, awakening to India’s rich cultural heritage, etc. gave rise to the feeling of nationalism in India.

Question 2.
When did the factors responsible for nationalism develop in India?
Answer:
Factors responsible for the rise of nationalism in India developed notably only after the mutiny of 1857 C.E.

Question 3.
From where did the modern concept of nationalism originate?
Answer:
The modern concept of nationalism originated in Europe.

Question 4.
Which factors played an important role in spreading nationalism in Europe?
Answer:
Factors like Renaissance, Reformation, American and French Revolutions, Unification of Italy and Germany, etc. played an important role in spreading nationalism in Europe.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Question 5.
For which principles did Indians get inspiration from the French Revolution?
Answer:
Indians got inspiration fir the principles of liberty, equality and fraternity from the French revolution.

Question 6.
Who discovered many archaeological remains depicting India’s rich heritage?
Answer:
Ancient archaeologist Alexander Cunningham and his assistants as well as the Indian archaeological expert’s Rai Bahadur Dayaram Sahni, Madho Swarup Vats and Rakhal Das discovered many archaeological remains depicting India’s rich heritage.

Question 7.
Who made efforts to establish the Indian National Congress? When was it established?
Answer:
It was with the efforts of Sir Allan Octavian Hume (A. O. Hume), a retired British officer, that the Indian National Congress was established in December 1885.

Question 8.
Where was the first session of the Indian National Congress held? Who was its president?
Answer:
The first session of the Indian National Congress was held on 28th December 1885, in Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit School in Mumbai. Vyomeshchandra Bannerjee was its president.

Question 9.
Which leaders were present at the first session of the Indian National Congress?
Answer:
Leaders like Dadabhai Navroji, Gopalkrishna Gokhale, Firozshah Mehta, Badruddin Tayaabji, K. T. Telang, Dinshaw Vachcha, etc. were present at the first session of the Indian National Congress.

Question 10.
Which policy did Lord Curzon adopt in order to divide Bengal?
Answer:
Viceroy Lord Curzon adopted the ‘Divide and Rule’ policy started by the British to divide Bengal.

Question 11.
Why did Lord Curzon want to divide Bengal?
Answer:
The main intention for dividing Bengal was that Viceroy Lord Curzon wanted to promote communed differences among the Hindus and Muslims by separating Muslim dominated East Bengal and to weaken the momentum of national political awakening among the people of India.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Question 12.
Which song became the slogan during the Bang-bhang movement?
Answer:
The song ‘Vande Mataram’ from the novel ‘Anand Math’ written by Bankimchandra Chattopadhyaya became the popular slogan during the Bang-Bhang movement.

Question 13.
On whose suggestion was the day of Bengal partition observed as ‘Day of Unity’?
Answer:
As per the suggestion of poet laureate Rabindranath Tagore, the day was observed as ‘Day of Unity’.

Question 14.
What were the main objectives of the Bang- Bhang movement?
Answer:
The Bang-Bhang movement was led with three main objectives :

  1. To trade and use Indian (Swadeshi) goods only,
  2. To boycott imported (British) goods and
  3. To acquire national education and boycott English education.

Question 15.
Who were the main leaders of the committee formed to protest against the partition of Bengal?
Answer:
Surendranath Bannerjee, Bipin Chandra Pal, Arvind Ghosh, etc. were the main leaders under whom a committee was formed to protest against the partition of Bengal.

Question 16.
What provisions were made in Bengal for national education?
Answer:
In 1907 C.E. 25 national secondary schools and 300 national primary schools were started in Bengal for national education. Moreover, Rabindranath Tagore had started the ‘Vishwabharti School’ at Shanti Niketan.

Question 17.
In which manner did the extremists want freedom?
Answer:
The extremist leaders did not want freedom as a favour, but as their right and so were ready to revolt in an active and aggressive manner for it.

Question 18.
Who was the main leader of the extremist movement?
Answer:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak who is famous as Lokmanya Tilak was the main leader of the Extremist movement.

Question 19.
Which slogan did Lokmanya Tilak give?
Answer:
Lokmanya Tilak gave the following slogan to the Indian people – “Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it.”

Question 20.
What did Lala Lajpat Rai say when he was being beaten up by sticks (during the lathi charge)?
Answer:
When he was being beaten by sticks by police (i.e., during the ‘lathi-charge), Lala Lajpat Rai quoted, “The government that attacks its own innocent subjects has no claim to be called a civilised government. Bear in mind, such a government cannot survive for long. I declare that the blows struck at me will be the last nail in the coffin of the British rule in India.”

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Question 21.
Which newspapers did Bipinchandra Pal start?
Answer:
Bipin Chandra Pal started a weekly named ‘New India’ and a newspaper named ‘Vande Mataram’.

Question 22.
Which newspapers did Lokmanya Tilak start?
Answer:
Lokmanya Tilak started a newspaper named ‘Kesari’ in Marathi and an English newspaper called ‘Maratha’.

Question 23.
For which festivals did Lokmanya Tilak start community celebrations?
Answer:
Lokmanya Tilak started community celebrations of the festivals of Ganesh Chaturthi and Shivaji Jayanti (Chhatrapati Shivaji’s Birth Anniversary).

Question 24.
Where and when was the ‘Muslim League’ established?
Answer:
The ‘Muslim League’ was established in 1906 C.E. in Dhaka.

Question 25.
Who started the Home Rule movement? When?
Answer:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Madam Annie Besant started the Home Rule movement in 1916 C.E.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Question 26.
Through which newspapers did Lokmanya Tilak and Annie Besant to propagate the Home Rule Movement?
Answer:
Lokmanya Tilak propagated the Home Rule Movement through his newspapers ‘Kesari’ and ‘Maratha’ and Madam Annie Besant did the same through her newspapers viz. ‘The Common Will’ and ‘New India’.

Question 27.
Which pact is considered important in the history of India’s freedom struggle?
Answer:
The ‘Lucknow Pact’ is considered important in the history of India’s freedom struggle.

Question 28.
Of which sessions of the Congress had Subhash Chandra Bose become the president?
Answer:
Subhash Chandra Bose became the president of the Congress Haripura Session in 1938 C.E. and of the Tripura Session in 1939 C.E.

Question 29.
Which vow had Subhash Chandra Bose taken?
Answer:
Subhash Chandra Bose had taken a vow that he will not enter subjugated India.

Question 30.
When and how did Subhash Chandra Bose die?
Answer:
According to the reports published by the Japanese government, Subhash Chandra Bose’s plane that took off from Taipei airport in Formosa on 18th August 1945 crashed and Subhash Chandra Bose being seriously burned, finally succumbed to death.

Write short notes on :
Question 1.
Subhash Chandra Bose
Answer:
Subhash Chandra Bose was born on 23rd January, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa (Odisha) to Prabhavati and Janakinath Bose. He was very intelligent. He stood 4th in the ICS exam in London in 1920. He returned to India and joined the Indian National Congress. He was arrested 11 times. He became President of the Haripura session of Congress in 1938 and again of the Tripura seesion in 1939. However, he was forced to resign from the Congress due to differences of opinion.

Subhash Chandra Bose formed a new political party named Forward Bloc (Block in textbook is wrong; it should be BLOC only) in May 1939. When World War II broke out the Forward Bloc launched an anti-war propaganda. He was arrested and imprisoned. However, when he went on a hunger strike, the British government had to set him free. But they kept him under house arrest.
On January 17, 1941 at the stroke of midnight, Subhash Chandra Bose escaped from house arrest. After disguising himself as a pathan and travelling via Peshawar, Kabul and Moscow he finally reached Berlin (Germany) and then on to Japan via Sumatra.

When Captain Mohan Singh had to resign his post, Rasbihari Bose appoined Subhash Chandra Bose as the chief of the ‘Azad Hind Fauj’ on 4th July, 1943. He was given the honorary title of ‘Netaji’ who gave the slogans ‘Chalo Delhi’ and ‘Jai Hind’ to the Azad Hind Fauj. He toured countries of South-East Asia and appealed to Indians there to sacrifice all for India’s freedom with the words ‘You give me blood and I will give you freedom.’ (‘Turn mujhe khoon do, main tumhe azadi doonga.’)

Subhash Chandra Bose established the Aarzi Hukumat- e-Azad Hind (Acting Government to free India) in Singapore in October 1943. This government declared war against England and America. Subhash Chandra Bose reorganised the Azad Hind Fauj. He became the Chief of Army and of the Aarzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind. The soldiers were properly trained and divided into various battalions. The Fauj was victorious at many fronts on the Eastern Border of India, but had to retreat dur to shortage of food supply and heavy rain.

Subhash Chandra Bose had taken a vow that he would never enter subjugated India. Netaji left Rangoon and Bangkok. As per the reports published by Japanese government, Subhash Chandra Bose’s plane that took off from Taipei in Formosa on 18th August, 1945 crashed and Netaji being seriously burned finally succumbed to death.

Question 2.
The Partition of Bengal
Answer:
The growing unity and integrity among Indians became a concern for the British. The British withdrew their support and to further weaken Indian unity Viceroy Lord Curzon adopted the ‘Divide and Rule’ policy and partitioned Bengal in 1905. Bengal was the largest province of British India and so its administration was difficult. So Viceroy Curzon partitioned Bengal, but the main intention was that he wanted to promote communal differences among the Hindus and Muslims thus weakening the momentum of political awakening among Indians.

However, Indian leaders and common people understood this and opposed it intensively. The song ‘Vande Mataram’ from the book An and Math’ written by Bankimchandra Chattopadhyaya became the popular slogan during the protest against Bengal partition. The day of Bengal partition was observed as Mourning Day’ (Day of National Mourning). On the suggestion of Rabindranath Tagore the day was also celebrated as ‘Day of Unity’.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Question 3.
The Home Rule Revolution
Answer:
Between 1916 and 1918 when the First World War had just ended, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Madam Annie Besant along with prominent Indians like Joseph Baptista, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, G.S. Kharpade, Sir S. Subramania Iyer organised a national alliance of leagues in India to demand Home Rule within the British Empire for all in India.

Tilak was conferred the title of ‘Lokmanya’ for propagating the ‘Home Rule’ through his newspapers ‘Kesari’ and ‘Maratha.’ Madam Annie Besant wrote various articles in the weekly ‘The Common Will’ and the daily ‘New India’. She appealed to the British to share administrative powers and grant the ‘Home Rule’ to India at the earliest. Annie Besant was kept under house arrest at Ooty. Due to protests and demonstrations at various places, the British had to finally set her free. The ‘Home Rule Movement was supported by the Indian National Congress as well as the Muslim League.

Give brief introductions:

Question 1.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Answer:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak popularly known as Lokmanya Tilak was a prominent leader of the Extremist movement. He was ‘Bal’ of the triplet group ‘Lal-Bal-Pal.’ He gave the slogan : “Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it.” He started community celebrations of ‘Ganesh Chaturthi’ and
‘Shivaji Jayanti’ to unite Marathas. He also started two newspapers, namely, ‘Kesari’ in Marathi and ‘Maratha’ in English. He played an important role in the ‘Home Rule Movement’ in 1916 C.E. Tilak was conferred with the honorary title of ‘Lokmanya.’

Question 2.
Lala Lajpat Rai
Answer:
Lala Lajpat Rai (1856-1928) became popularly known as ‘Punjab Kesari’ or ‘Sher-e-Punjab’. He was badly beaten up during the ‘lathi charge’ while protesting against the Simon Commission. This became the cause of his death. Lala Lajpat Rai said, “Every blow aimed at me is a nail in the coffin of British imperialism.” (the sentence in the textbook is grammatically as well as verbally wrong.) He was ‘Lai’ of the trio known as Lal- Bal-Pal and was an extremist leader.

Question 3.
Bipin Chandra Pal
Answer:
Bipin Chandra Pal (1858- 1932) was ‘Pal’ of the trio known as Lal-Bal-Pal. He started the weekly ‘New India Weekly’ and a newspaper named ‘Vande Mataram’. He was accused of provoking youngsters to violent activities. He was an extremist leader as he was in favour of acquiring Swaraj through revolution.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India

Match the pairs correctly:

Section ‘A’ Section ‘B’
(1) Western archaeologist (1) Vyomeshchandra Bannerjee
(2) Retired British officer (2) Bankimchandra Chattopadhyaya
(3) First president of Indian National Congress (3) Sir Allan Octavian Hume
(4) Dadabhai Navroji
(4) Person who partitioned Bengal (5) Alexander Cunningham
(5) Composer of the song ‘Vande Mataram’  (6) Lord Curzon

Answer:
(1-5),
(2-3),
(3-1),
(4-6),
(5-2).

Correctly matched events and their years are given below.

Draw a timeline and show these events on it: [Scale: 1 cm = 5 Years]
Section ‘A’ Section ‘B’
(1) 1905 A.D. → Bengal was partitioned
(2) 1916 A.D.→ Lucknow Pact
(3) 1921 A.D.→ Subhash Chandra Bose passed the ICS exam
(4) 1928 A.D. → Simon Commission came to India
Answer:
GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Nationalism in India 1

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