Gujarat Board GSEB Class 12 English Textbook Solutions Writing Skills Note Making Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.
Note Making GSEB Std 12 English Grammar
Note making is an advanced writing skill which is acquiring increasing importance due to knowledge explosion. There is a need to remember at least the main points of any given subject: Making notes is a complex activity which combines several skills.
How to make notes?
→ Read the passage carefully.
What is the main idea of the passage? Frame a heading based on the central idea and write it in the middle of the page.
How has the main idea been presented and developed? Are there two or three subordinate/associated ideas? You can frame subheadings based on these.
Are there further details or points of the subtitles that you wish to keep in these notes? Indent, i.e., suitably space and number.
All subheadings should be written at a uniform distance from the margin.
All points should also maintain the same distance away from the margin.
Samples of Making Notes
Read the following passage and prepare notes for the same:
Occasional self-medication has always been part of normal living. The making and selling of drugs has a long history and is closely linked, like medical practice itself, with belief in magic. Only during the last hundred years or so, due to development of scientific techniques, diagnosis has become possible. The doctor is now able to follow up the correct diagnosis of many illnesses with specific treatment of their causes.
In many other illnesses of which the causes remain unknown, he is still limited, like the unqualified prescriber, to the treatment of symptoms. The doctor is trained to decide when to treat symptoms only and when to attack the cause. This is the essential difference between medical prescribing and self-medication.
The advance of technology has brought about much progress in some fields of medicine, including the development of scientific drug therapy. In many countries, public health organization is improving and people’s nutritional standards have risen. Parallel with such beneficial trends are two which have an adverse effect. One is the use of high-pressure advertising by the pharmaceutical industry which has tended to influence both patients and doctors and has led to the overuse of drugs generally.
The other is emergence of eating, insufficient sleep, excessive smoking and drinking. People with disorders arising from faulty habits such as these, as well as from unhappy human relationships, often resort to self-medication and so add the taking of pharmaceuticals to the list. Advertisers go to great lengths to catch this market.
Clever advertising is aimed at chronic sufferers. They will try anything because doctors have not been able to cure them. They can induce such faith in a preparation, particularly if steeply-priced. Advertisements are also aimed at people suffering from mild complaints such as simple cold and coughs which clear up by themselves within a short time.
These are the main reasons, why laxatives, Indigestion – remedies, painkillers, cough-mixtures, tonics, vitamin and iron tablets, nose drops, ointments and many other preparations are found in quantity in many households. It is doubtful whether taking these things ever improves a person’s health, it may even make it worse.
Worse, because the preparation may contain unsuitable ingredients; worse because the taker may become dependent on them; worse because they might be taken in excess; worse because they may cause poisoning, and worst of all because symptoms of some serious underlying cause may be asked and therefore medical help may not be sought. Self-diagnosis is a greater danger than self-medication.
- A part of normal living-last 100 yrs
- Advance in diagnostic technology.
- Doctor required for diagnosis and treatment of disease
- Self-medication differs from medical prescription
2. Technological Advancement in medicine:
(a) Drug therapy
(b) Improvement in public health organisations
(c) Increase in nutritional standards.
3. Clever advertising by pharmaceutical companies:
(a) Take advantage of people’s need
(b) Chronic sufferers
(c) Mild complaints like cold and coughs
(d) Faulty lifestyle
- Lack of exercise, overeating, insufficient sleep, etc.
- Stress, unhappy relationships etc.
4. Dangers of self-medication :
(a) Preparation contains unsuitable ingredients
(b) Taker becomes dependent
(c) Taker consumes medicine in excess
(d) Preparation may cause poisoning
(e) Real cause of illness gets suppressed or untreated.
Almost all of us have suffered from a headache at some time or the other. For some, a headache is a constant companion and life is a painful hell of wasted time. The most important step to cope with headaches is to identify the type of headache one is suffering from. Intension headaches (two hand headaches), a feeling of a tight band around the head exits along with the pain in the neck and shoulders. It usually follows activities such as long stretches driving, typing or sitting on the desks. They are usually short-lived but can also last for days or weeks.
A headache is usually caused due to the spinal misalignment of the head, due to the posture. Sleeping on the stomach with the head turn to one side and bending over positions for a long time make it worse.
In migraine headaches, the pains usually on one side of the head may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, irritability and bright spots of flashes of light.
This headache is meant worse by activities especially bending. The throbbing pain in the head worsens by noise and light. Certain triggers for migraines maybe chocolate, caffeine, smoking or MSU in certain food items. The pain may last eight to twenty-four hours and there may be a hangover for two or three days.
Migraines are often produced by an ‘aura’ changes in sight and sensation. There is usually a family migraine. In a headache, pain originates from the brain but from the irritated nerves of muscles, blood vessels and bones. These head pain signals to the brain which judges the degree of distress and relays it at appropriate sites. The pain sometimes may be referred to sights other than the problem areas. This is known as referred by pain and occurs due to sensation overload. Thus, though, most headache starts at the base of the skull, referred pain is felt typically behind the eyes.
Factors causing headaches are understood but it is known that a shift in the level of body hormones, chemicals, certain foods and drinks and environmental stress can trigger them. If the headache troubles you often, visit the doctor, who will take a full health history relating to diet, life stresses, the type of headache, triggering factors and relief measures.
You may be asked to keep a ‘headache diary’ which tells you to list -the time headache started and when it ended, emotional, environmental and food and drinking factors which may contribute to it. The type and severity of pain and the medications used which provide much relief are also to be listed. This helps the doctor in determining the exact cause and type of headache and the remedy thereof.
Headache and Its Treatments:
(i) tension headache, or
(ii) migraine headache
(i) Tension headache
- feeling tight band around head
- pain in neck and shoulders
(ii) Migraine headaches
- pain on one side of the head
- vomiting and irritability
- bright sports of flashes of light
(i) Tension headache
- long stretches of driving
- long hours of typing or sitting on the desk
(ii) Migraine headaches
- Chocolate, coffee, smoking
- MSU is certain food items
- Self-care techniques for shorter period.
- Doctor advise for permanent treatments.
The tests of life are its plus factors. Overcoming illness and suffering is a plus factor for it moulds character. Steel is iron plus fire, soil is rock plus heat. So let’s include the plus factor in our lives. Sometimes the plus factor is more readily seen by the simple-hearted. Myers tells the story of a mother who brought into her home as a companion to her own son – a little boy who happened to have a hunch back.
She had warned her son to be careful, not to refer to his disability. The boys were playing and after a few minutes she overheard her son say to his companion “Do you know what you have got on your back?” The little boy was embarrassed, but before he could reply, his playmate continued, “It is the box in which your wings are, and someday God is going to cut it open and then you will fly away and be an angel.”
Often it takes a third eye or a change in focus, to see the plus factor. Walking along the corridors of a hospital recently where patients were struggling with fear of pain and tests, I was perturbed. What gave me a fresh perspective were the sayings put up everywhere, intended to uplift. One saying made me conscious of the beauty of the universe in the midst of pain, suffering and struggle.
The other saying assured me that God was with me when I was in deep water and that no troubles would overwhelm me. The import of those sayings also made me aware of the nether springs that flow into people’s lives when they touch rock bottom or are lonely or guilt-ridden. The nether springs make recovery possible, and they bring peace and patience in the midst of negative forces.
The forces of death and destruction are not so much physical as they are psychic and psychological. When malice, hatred and hard-heartedness prevail, they get channelled as forces of destruction. Where openness, peace and good-heartedness prevail, the forces of life gush forth to regenerate hope and joy. The life force is triumphant when love overcomes fear. Both fear and love are deep mysteries, but the effect of love is to build, whereas fear tends to destroy. Love is generally the plus factor that helps build character. It creates bonds and its reach is infinite.
It is true there is no shortage of destructive elements – forces and people who seek to destroy others and in the process destroy themselves – but at the same time, there are signs of love and life everywhere that are constantly enabling us to overcome setbacks. So let’s not look at gloom and doom-let us seek positivity and happiness. For it is when you seek that you will find what is waiting to be discovered.
The Tests of Life-The Plus Factors
1. The Importance of the Tests of Life:
- Illness and Suffering build character.
- Simple hearted-View disability positively e.g., boy with a hunch-backed companion.
2. Change of focus required:
(a) Sayings in hospital – awaken one to beauty of universe amidst pain; presence of God
- Give strength to overcome obstacles
- Realisation – underlying human strength in troubles
- Bring Peace and Patience
3. Forces of Destruction :
- Psychic and psychological
- Consist of malice, hatred and hard-headedness
- Fear destroys
4. Forces of Life :
- Openness, peace and good-heartedness
- Love overcomes fear. Love builds character and bonds
- Discover signs of love, defeat destructive elements. ,
The small village of Somnathpur contains an extraordinary temple, built around 1268 A.D. by the Hoyasalas of Karnataka – one of the most prolific temple builders. Belur and Halebid are among their better-known works. While these suffered during the invasions of the 14th century, the Somnathpur temple stands more or less intact in near-original conditions. This small temple captivates with the beauty and vitality of its detailed sculpture, covering almost every inch of the walls, pillars, and even ceilings.
It has three shikharas and stands on a star-shaped, raised platform with 24 edges. The outer walls have a profusion of detailed carvings: the entire surface run over by carved plaques of stone. There were vertical panels covered by exquisite figures of gods and goddesses, with many incarnations being depicted. There were nymphs too, some carrying an ear of maize – a symbol of plenty and prosperity.
The elaborate ornamentation, very characteristic of Hoysala sculptures, was a remarkable feature. On closer look – and it is worth it – the series of friezes on the outer walls revealed intricately carved caparisoned elephants, charging horsemen, stylized flowers, warriors, musicians, crocodiles, and swans.
The temple was actually commissioned by Soma Dandanayaka or Somnath (he named the village after himself), the minister of the Hoysala king, Narasimha the Third. The temple was built to house three versions of Krishna. The inner centre of the temple was the Kalyana Mandapa.
Leading from here were three corridors, each ending in a shrine, one for each kind of Krishna – Venugopala, Janardana and Prasanna Keshava, though only two remain in their original form. In the darkness of the sanctum sanctorum, I tried to discern the different images. The temple’s sculptural perfection is amazing and it includes the doors of the temple and the three elegantly carved towers.
Temple of Somnathpur
1. Prominent temples at Somnathpur:
– Built around 1268 AD
– Built by Hoyasalas.
-Built by most prolific temple-builders.
- Belur and Halebid
- suffered during the invasions of 14 century
2. Temple: the beauty and vitality:
- Detailed sculpture – covering walls, pillars, ceilings.
- Three shikharas – stands on star-shaped, raised platform – 24 edges
- The outer walls – detailed carvings
- the entire surface – carved plaques of stone
- Vertical panels covered by exquisite figures of gods and goddesses.
3. Characteristic of Hoysala sculptures:
- The series of friezes on the outer walls
- Revealed intricately carved caparisoned elephants.
- Charging horsemen
- Stylized flowers
- Warriors, musicians, crocodiles and swans.
4. Temple in the History:
- Actually commissioned Soma Dandanayaka or Somnath
- inner centre of temple was the Kalyana Mandapa.
- Leading – three corridors, each ending in a shrine
- Each kind of Krishna – Venugopala, Janardana and Prasanna Keshava.