Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 7 Post-Independence India summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
Post-Independence India Class 9 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 7
Post-Independence India Class 9 GSEB Notes
→ The Article for India’s Independence was passed in the British Parliament in the year 1947.
→ According to the Article, India and Pakistan got its existence. There were two major problems before the country:
- Framing the constitution of India
- To put an end to the sovereignty of British Empire on the Princely states and merging them into making an intact India.
→ At that time, there were 562 Princely states. 48% Princely states had stakes in the total area of India. 20%of India’s population resided in these Princely states.
→ After gaining Independence Maharaja of Bhavnagar, Krushna Kumarsinh, was the first King to start responsible Government 15″ January, 1948.
→ Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel appealed to the Kings and Nawabs of the Princely states that they should voluntarily forsake their respective states in the interest of their subjects and the Union of India.
→ Sardar Patel and his secretary of the Home Department Mr.V.P.Menon prepared the draft for ‘Attachment bond ‘and ‘Status Quo Agreement’.
→ Except Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagadh, 559 princely states accepted this instrument of accession and joined the Union of India.
→ Hyderabad : Nizam of Hyderabad with its states from southern part of India declared its independence on 15“ of August. As far as its geographical location, it was bound to join India.
→ Ultimately Hyderabad was merged with the Union of India by using ‘police force’ on 18″ September 1948.Sardar Patel assured the Nizam to protect all their interests. Kanaialal Munshi played a very crucial role in the entire episode.
→ Junagadh: On the day of Independence, the Nawab of Junagadh wrote an instrument of accession to join Pakistan. Pakistan, in turn, gave them consent.
→Sardar Patel decided to take counter measures against this.
→ During this time, Sheikhs of Mangrol and Manavadar declared their wish to join the Union of India.
→Indian soldiers and navy who were positioned to protect Manavadar and Mangrol, besieged the Junagadh State.
→ On 9″ of November, 1947, referendum of the people of Junagadh was taken. Thus, Junagadh’s merger with the union of India was made possible owing to Sardar Patel’s guts and tremendous will of people of Junagadh.
→Kashmir : The issue of Kashmir was the most complicated of all.
→ Raja Harisingh of Kashmir was indeci- sive.
→ Meanwhile, Pakistan attacked Kashmir.
→ Raja Harisingh requested for military assistance to protect Jammu and Kashmir against Pakistani attack.
→ The Government of India insisted that Raj a Harisingh should first sign the instrument of accession and then the Indian army could be sent.
→Immediately after signing the letter, the Indian army protected Kashmir. But Pakistan had already occu- pied one third portion of Kashmir by that time. But the rest of Kashmir was saved.
→ India has registered a complaint against Pakistan in the Security Council of the United Nations. The Security Council suggested for cease fire. Even today, Kashmir issue is a contentious issue in the relations between India and Pakistan.
→Merger of French and Portuguese Colonies
→India emerged as an independent and sovereign state on January 26″, 1950. But certain colonies of the French and the Portuguese rule were still under their control.
→ Union of India appealed the French —controlled Pondicherry and Portuguese-controlled Diu, Daman and Goa to merge with India.
→ People of these colonies wanted desperately to join the Union of India. They started vigorous movement for the purpose.
→The French government realised people’s rage and was compelled to start negotiation with the Indian government.
→Merger of Diu, Daman and Goa : 15″ August, 1947, political leaders and Satyagrahis entered Diu, Daman and Goa. In ‘Free Goa Agitation’ thousands of volunteers died.
→As attempts such as negotiation, persuasion and Satyagrahs proved to be unsuccessful, the Indian government decided to begin ‘Operation Vijay’ to liberate Goa.
→ On the midnight of December 19″, Governor of Portuguese, De-Silva, surrendered to Indian government.
→ The Indian army captured Goa, Daman and Diu and hoisted Indian flag there. Thus the last remains of the Western rule disappeared from India.
→ Formation and Reorganisation of Indian States
→ India became independent and acquired information about unification of princely states. Instead of accept- ing
unitary system, we had accepted union system of governance.
→ Therefore, the issue of formation and reorganisation of constituents of the union occurred.
→ The erstwhile British provinces and Princely States were divided into four divisions after their unification and
→ Thereafter, a new demand of reorganisation of states on linguistic bases started becoming strong.
→ In 1953, Jawaharlal Nehru considered the issue of reorganization of states and appointed State
→ Finally a Bill, making changes in the Constitution and reorganising states was passed and implemented from
→ Finally, Central Government made two separate states, Maharastra and Gujarat on May 1,1960. On 25 “May, 1960, recognition of Maharashtra as a state was made and its capital, Mumbai. 1“ May, 1960, is considered as the Foundation day of Gujarat and it included the regions of Saurastra and Kutch.
→ Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, and Nagaland were recognized as the ‘Land of Seven Sisters’.
→ There was always a continuous demand for formation of separate small states from the bigger states.
→ Currently, the Indian Union consists of 29 states
→ India has unity in diversity in which people following diverse religions, speaking different languages, belonging to different castes, races and cultures have been living since centuries in this country.
→ It becomes very obvious for people speaking common language, sharing common culture and living in certain specific geographical region for a long time to develop emotional bondage for one another.
→ Language, Caste and Religion are the three main important factors for creating Regionalism.
→ Scientific and Technological Development
→ India has made extra ordinary achievements in the field of science and technology in the last half century.
Looking at reasonably limited resources and less literacy, India’s growth in the field of science and technology in comparison with other developed countries is unique.
→ At the time of our Independence, we were dependent on others for food grains. In making us self-reliant in this area, today, huge dams, lakes and canals have played a major role.
→ We have been making use of modem agricultural technology to increase agricultural production for the country. We have been able to achieve Green Revolution. Agriculture institutions, laboratories and agriculture Universities have been established to achieve growth in agricultural science.
→ Nuclear scientists and engineers have constructed ultra-modem nuclear reactors and power stations. By successfully conducting nuclear tests
→ Twice at Pokhran in Rajasthan we have been successful in making nuclear bombs.
→ We have developed space shuttles Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) to launch satellites in outer space. We also have launched satellites in outer space.
→ Satellites like ‘Aryabhatta’(1975), ‘Bhaskar’(1979), ‘Rohini’ (1979) etc are useful in successfully conducting nuclear tests, in telecasting , education, weather and getting information about minerals through remote sensing system.
→ The use of Bio-technology in industries, energy, agriculture, health and the continuous research
and development in that field has resulted in the maxims like ‘Digital India’ and ‘Make in India’ world famous.
→ 21 st June has been declared as “World Yoga Day’ by the United Nations, which shows the glowing future of India.