Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 17 Economic Problems and Challenges: Poverty and Unemployment Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions, Notes Pdf.
Economic Problems and Challenges: Poverty and Unemployment Class 10 GSEB Solutions Social Science Chapter 17
Gujarat Board Class 10 Social Science Economic Problems and Challenges: Poverty and Unemployment Textbook Questions and Answers
I. Answer the following questions in detail.
Explain the poverty alleviation programmes.
Poverty alleviation programmes in India can be broadly classified into:
- Wage based employment programmes,
- Self-employment programmes.
- Programmes related to food security.
- Programmes related to social security.
- Programmes related to reduction of poverty in the urban areas.
Go through these Social Science Chapter 17 Economic Problems and Challenges: Poverty and Unemployment Class 10 GSEB Notes to score well in your exam.
A brief narration of some of these programmes is as under:
(i) Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA): This is a wage-based employment programme. One person from every family is guaranteed wage employment for minimum 100 days in the financial year. The daily wages are fixed by the government and if it fails to provide work, unemployment allowance is paid. Rural Development activities such as horticulture, land levelling, tree plantation, water conservation, cleaning of canals, etc. are undertaken.
(ii) Chief Minister’s Village Road Scheme: Village Panchayats are provided financial assistance to build approach roads and thereby connect the village to the nearby villages and highways.
(iii) Deendayal Upadhyay Gram Jyoti Yojana: This programme of rural electrification proposes unhindered supply of electricity to 18000 villages which are without supply of electricity. It proposes to supply electricity for domestic use and agriculture at a concessional rate, provide subsidy to farmers to purchase electric motors and set up new power sub-stions. It provides subsidy to purchase solar energy equipment.
(iv) Maa Annapurna Yojana: The Antyodaya families in the cities and villages are provided 35 kg food grains free of cost per month. The other poor persons are provided 5 kg food grains at a very low rate. This programme is a part of the food security activity in Gujarat.
(v) Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana: Every member of Parliament is provided ten crore rupees to be spent on the development of an adopted village. The activities include improvement in education and health services and generate employment opportunities. In their endeavour to make an ideal village, they build permanent public assets, promote social harmony and preserve cultural heritage.
(vi) Mission Mangalam: It is meant to encourage women to form Self-Help Groups. They are provided skill-training for household economic employed and come out of the vicious circle of poverty.
(vii) Dattopand Thengdi Vyaj-Sahay Yojana: It is a scheme through which the government provides loans to village artisans at a low rate to purchase raw material for their handicraft and cottage industries.
(viii) Jyoti Gramodyog Vikas Yojana: It is the ‘Start-up India’ scheme for unemployed persons in the rural areas. They are provided financial help and subsidies to undertake production activities and overcome poverty.
(ix) Vajpayee Bankable Yojana: It is meant for the unemployed persons who are in the age group of 18 to 65 years and have completed primary education. They are provided skill training and financial help to undertake their production activities. This scheme is meant for the unemployed persons in the rural as well as urban areas.
Discuss the steps taken by the government for poverty alleviation programme in the agricultural sector and the programme ‘Gramodayathi Bharat Uday’.
The Steps for Poverty alleviation in the agriculture sector are as follows:
(i) Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana: This scheme is meant to increase irrigation facility for agriculture. It proposes to provide irrigation facility to the entire agricultural land, promotion of drip irrigation and construct small, medium and big size check dams. Such activities will also generate employment and income for the rural poor.
(ii) Prime Minister Farm Security (Insurance) Plan: This plan proposes to provide farm security, provide financial assistance for loss/damage to the crops, purchase cotton and provide remunerative prices to the agricultural produce.
(iii) National Drinking Water Programme: Like PM’s Krishi Sinchai Yojana, this programme proposes to extend irrigation facility to improving the existing canal network provide tube wells, check soil erosion and salinity. Digging ponds, watershed development, construction of tanks, rainwater harvesting, lining of canals, renovation/revitalization of the check dams are the related activities.
(iv) Enam Scheme: Under this scheme, the farmers enlist their products and the buyers are put in direct contact. Thereby intermediates are eliminated. The farmers get remunerative prices due to competition among the buyers,
(v) Integrated dairy development scheme for the tribal women provides help for development of geoponics and plantation agriculture.
(vi) Organic farming: It is encouraged by providing training and finance at a low interest rate and setting up markets,
(vii) Gramodayathi Bharat Uday: This is the most ambitious programme of the present government for attaining economic development of India by means of rural development. Steps are proposed to prevent losses to the farmers. Record of land survey are maintained. Finance is made available for the mechanized farming and computerization in agriculture. Soil Testing laboratories are set up and advice is given to the farmers on cultivation of remunerative crops. All irrigation related activities are undertaken and additional employment is generated in the rural areas. Thereby, poverty alleviation will take place and farmers will be freed from the debt trap.
Give information about the efforts made by the government to reduce poverty.
The strategy adopted by the government in the post-independence period can be stated as under:
(i) The strategy of ‘Garibi Hatao’ was launched along with emphasis on the economic development. It was expected that generation of employment will enhance income and thereby reduce poverty. However, the benefits of development did not purcolate down and the poor continued to remain poor.
(ii) The strategy of ‘Green Revolution’ gave boost to agriculture and increased agricultural production to a large extent. However, the Green Revolution entailed capital-intensive technique of production. The rich farmers made capital investment and reaped the benefits of the Green Revolution. The poor could not buy inputs, such as fertilizers. Insecticides and pesticides.
They could not afford mechanization and water-saving techniques of irrigation. The strategy of the ‘Green Revolution’ failed to reduce poverty. The disparity in income meant that the rich became richer and the poor remained where they were or became poorer.
(iii) Economic development was slow and sluggish. The land reforms intended to reduce poverty in the rural segment were not properly implemented.
(iv) Rapid industrialization did take place but it added to the wealth of the urban rich. The higher taxation on the high-income groups and the heavy taxes on the luxurious good had little impact on the rich.
(v) The government resorted to public distribution system to provide essential commodities to the common people at subsidised price through fair price shops: This was intended to raise the standard of living of the poor.
(vi) The government encouraged the activities allied to agriculture such as dairy, forestry, pisciculture to enhance the income and provide alternate sources of employment in the rural areas.
(vii) Encouragement was given to the small and cottage industries to generate employment in the rural areas. Laws were enacted to provide protection to the small and cottage industries by reservation of production of certain goods. Arrangements were made to provide skill training to the unemployed young persons to enable them to undertake self-employment activities.
(viii) Steps have been taken to spread education, provide health services, provide agricultural credit, built infrastructure facilities, provide agricultural inputs such as the quality seeds and fertilizers at a subsidized rate. The government has started polytechnics and vocational training centres.
(ix) Encouragement has been given to women to form Self-Help-Groups and undertake self-employment activities.
(x) A number of social welfare activities were undertaken to improve the living standard of the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and economically backward sections of the society.
Explain the schemes and programmes undertaken by the government to reduce unemployment (main four).
(i) Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA): This is a wage-based employment programme. One person from every family is guaranteed wage employment for minimum 100 days in the financial year. The daily wages are fixed by the government and if it fails to provide work, unemployment allowance is paid. Rural development activities such as horticulture, land levelling, tree plantation, water conservation, cleaning of canals, etc, are undertaken.
(ii) Mission Mangalam is meant to encourage women to form Self Help Groups. They are provided skill-training for household economic employed and come out of the vicious circle of poverty.
(iii) Jyoti Gramodyog Vikas Yojana is the ‘Start-up India’ scheme for unemployed persons in the rural areas. They are provided financial help and subsidies to undertake production activities and overcome poverty.
(iv) Integrated dairy development scheme for the tribal women provides help for development of geoponics and plantation agriculture.
II. Answer the following questions in point-wise.
What is poverty? What are the characteristics of the people living below poverty line?
Poverty is a qualitative term that denotes the lowest (sub-human) level of life. It is a situation wherein a large number of people are unable to satisfy even their basic requirements of food, clothing, shelter, education and health.
The following characteristics of the people living below poverty line have been observed:
- Inability to get two meals a day.
- Non-availability of adequate place of dwelling and as such forced to live in slum areas.
- Income inadequate to meet the required expenditure.
- Mostly illiterate.
- Lifespan below the national average.
- High death rate due to malnutrition and starvation.
- Lack of nutritious food accounts for high infant mortality rate.
- Child labour forced upon the family.
Explain the poverty in India.
Poverty is the serious and complex economic problem before India.
- India is in the grip of poverty since age and this chronic problem is difficult to resolve.
- The landless and farm labourers, the small and marginal farmers, the village artisans the inhabitants of forests and mountainous regions and the tribals are the rural poor.
- The temporary (casual) workers in the industries, the daily wage earners, the domestic workers, rickshaw drivers, the workers in tea stalls, hotels and the dhabas are among the urban poor.
- On the basis of monthly expenditure of ? 4080 for family in the rural areas and ?5000 in the urban areas was declared as the poverty line by the Planning Commission 2011-12.
- Those families whose income was less were deemed as the “Below Poverty Line’ (BPL) families.
- The estimated “BPL’ population was 27 crores. It was 21.9% of the total population of India.
- As per the UNDP Report, 21.92% population of India lived below poverty line in 2011-12.
- The proportion of poverty in the rural and urban areas was 25.7% and 13.7%. Chhattisgarh is the poorest state in India, with 36.9% BPL population.
- On the other hand, Gba has the lower BPL population of 5.09%.
- In Gujarat 16.63% population live below poverty line. Besides Chhattisgarh, the other states having more them 30% BPL population are Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Manipur, Bihar, Arunachal Pradesh, Jharkhand and Odisha.
- India has rich natural resources which have not been fully utilized.
- As a result, a large number of people live in poverty. It is said that, “The poor live in rich India”.
What are reasons for the emergence of poverty in India?
The reasons for the emergence of poverty in India are as follows:
• Irregular rainfall and inadequate irrigation facilities are responsible for the decline in income from agriculture.
• Seasonal nature of employment and absence of alternative employment in the rural area.
• The illiterate people are engaged in agriculture for ages. They do not possess required knowledge,
skills or training for the high-paying professions. Sway of customs, traditions and (blind) religious beliefs force people to indulge in huge unproductive expenditure. They borrow money from the village moneylenders at exorbitant rate of interest by mortgaging their land. As a result, more than 90% villagers are caught in the debt trap.
• The illiterate villages are exploited by the landlords and moneylenders.
• The illiterate villagers are unable to derive their benefits as they do not possess information of the welfare schemes of the government.
• The British rulers encouraged cultivation of cash
• The British rulers imposed exorbitant land revenue and made it compulsory to make its payment in cash. They did not grant relief even in time of natural calamities. The farmers had no other alternative but to approach money-lenders to raise funds for the payment of the land revenue. The exploitative British rule was mainly responsible for the rural poverty crops. This reduced the land under cultivation of the food- grains. As a result, production of foodgrains declined. This triggered scarcity of food grains and increase in the prices.
• Development of agriculture was neglected during the era of planning. Benefits of development did not reach the poor and they continued to live in poverty.
• Economic reforms introduced in 1991 have adverse effect on agriculture, small scale and cottage industries. The poor in the rural areas migrated to the urban areas in search of employment. This resulted in the collapse of agriculture as an economic activity.
• Malnutrition and starvation are common among the poor. They suffered form many ailments. Expensive medical treatment cause further hardship.
• Technological change have led to the closure of many traditional crafts and industries. The workers have been rendered jobless.
• Progress in medical science has increased the expectancy of life. Population has increased due to low death rate.
• The supply of labour has increased manifold. However, employment opportunities are insufficient. This led to unemployment and unemployment has further triggered poverty.
• The purchasing power of the people has declined. As, a result, the standard of living deteriorated. This is a reflection on the state of poverty in India.
What are the steps taken by the government to provide social security and food security?
The Government of India has enacted the National Food Security Act in 2013.
- Food security means provision of nutritious food to enable every individual to live an active and healthy life.
- The government of Gujarat launched ‘Maa Anapurna Yojana’ to provide food security in Gujarat.
- The Antyodaya families which are the poorest among the poor are provided 35 kg foodgrains free of cost, per month.
- The poor families are provided 5 kg food grain per person per month at high subsidized rates.
- About 3.62 crore people in Gujarat have been provided food security by “Maa Annapurna Yojana’.
Explain ‘poors live in rich India’.
India is said to be a rich country of the poor people. The riches of India had attracted the foreign invaders since the ancient times.
- The British exploited the rich natural resources of India.
- The British industries and the industrialists prospered. They exploited not only resources but also people of India. They made India country of the poor people.
- A small rich class had always existed in India. They acquired riches and wealth by exploiting millions of the poor. Even today the industrialists exploit the workers and the Zamindars exploit the farm labour.
- There is a small rich class and the large majority is poor.
- Even today, about 30% of the people in India live below the poverty line. Thus, poor live in rich India.
State the reasons for unemployment.
Prior to the advent of the British rule, India had a self-sufficient village economy and the problems of unemployment did not exist.
- The exploitative land revenue policy of the British uprooted the farmers and made them landless labourers.
- In times of natural calamities, the rural poor migrated to the urban areas and added to the number of people seeking employment.
- The British destroyed the traditional village and cottage industries and the craftsmen were rendered jobless.
- There was explosion of population in India.
- The supply of labour was in excess of demand and the industries were not in a position to absorb the entire available labour force.
- Indian capitalists did not have enough capital to start a large number of industries and provide employment. Natural calamities reduced the employment in agriculture.
- India did not have technically qualified engineers/technicians to take up the skilled labour positions in industries.
State the effects of unemployment.
Unemployment is a serious and complex problem before the Indian economy. Its (adverse) effects are as follows:
- Unemployment is the root cause of poverty in India. When there is no employment there is no income and when there is no income there is poverty and hardship for the poor.
- Unemployment leads to poverty and poverty leads to low standard for living. The unemployed poor live in slums, suffer malnutrition, starvation, diseases and early death.
- The failure to find employment make the educated and intelligent young people to migrate to other countries. The brain-drain is a major loss due to inadequate employment opportunities.
- The illiterate and semi-literate unemployed youth is lured by the criminals to indulge in antisocial activities.
- A new problem of suicide by the farmers has emerged in recent times in some parts of India as the poor farmer has neith3er money nor job to repay the loans.
III. Answer the following questions in brief.
Explain relative poverty of absolute poor.
Those persons in the developing countries who are unable to fulfil the basic necessities are called absolute poor and that condition is known as absolute poverty. The society in developed countries have different classes. These is a wide disparity in the income of these classes. There are families whose income and standard of living is inferior than the families of well-off classes. These families are considered to be relatively poor. This situation of comparative riches is described as relative poverty.
Explain Agro-Business Policy.
The government of Gujarat has declared Agro-Business Policy-2016. It proposes to provide employment to 10 lakh people by setting up agro-processing units in the State. It also proposes to export processed agro products which will generate sufficient income and reduce poverty.
Classify MANREGA programme.
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee ACT (MGNREGA) is a wage-based employed programme. One person from every family is guaranteed wage employment for minimum 100 days in the financial year. The daily wages are fixed by the government and if it fails to provide work, unemployment allowance is paid. Rural Development activities such as horticulture, land levelling, tree plantation, water conservation, cleaning of canals, etc are undertaken.
What is industrial unemployment?
Industrial unemployment is the result of conflicts between the employers and employees, leading to strikes, lockouts and closure of industry.
Explain the idea of ‘World Labour Market’.
The phenomena of international mobility of labour has given rise to the idea of World Labour Market in the era of globalization. Globalization assumes, among other things, free flow of labour across the world. This process started much before the onset of globalization. The bright students from the well-to-do families in India used to go to either England or America for higher education. Getting accustomed to better working conditions, much higher salary, comfortable life and social status, many of them did not return to India. This loss of the most intelligent people was described as ‘brain-drain’.
World Labour Market is a new form of brain-drain. A much large number of people enrol themselves in the world market and seek employment anywhere in the world. This has become a transnational phenomenon and people of one country migrate to another country. Thus, world has become a single market for the employers to select their prospective employees from anywhere in the world. Those seeking employment are willing to serve employers anywhere in the world.
This hunt for employees oh the one hand and the jobs, on the other hand, is more pronounced in high technical areas due information technology, biotechnology, communication and medical science. India is among the loser countries in the World Labour Market. However, the remittances of the fofeign exchange by the NRIs adds to the country’s foreign exchange reserves.
IV. Select the correct option of the following questions.
Which state in India has higher rate of poverty?
(a) Uttar Pradesh
What was the rate of poverty in India in 2011-12 (in crores)?
Which scheme has been started to connect women empowerment, skill development training, self-employment and market?
(a) Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Yojana
(b) Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.
(c) Mission Mangalam Yojana
(d) Agro Business Policy-2016
(c) Mission Mangalam Yojana
In which Indian state the rate of unemployment is highest?
Which was implemented under the Food Security Act in Gujarat?
(a) Maa Annapurna Yojana
(c) Antodaya Yojana
(d) Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana
(a) Maa Annapurna Yojana
Which scheme encourages unemployed Youth with new ideas to become entrepreneur and get self-employed?
(a) Make in India
(b) Start-Up India
(c) Digital India
(d) Swachchh Bharat Abhiyan
(a) Make in India
For elimination of unemployment which government organization helps employer?
(a) Employment Exchange Centre
(b) Labour Ministry
(c) Model Career Centre
(d) Gram Panchayat
(a) Employment Exchange Centre
Who is helped under ‘Shri Bajpai Bankable Yojana’?
(a) Urban Unemployed
(b) Rural Unemployed
(c) Trained Unemployed
(d) Unemployed Women
(c) Trained Unemployed
Gujarat Board Class 10 Social Science Economic Problems and Challenges: Poverty and Unemployment Additional Important Questions and Answers
I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
Which among the following is not primary need?
Who among the following cannot be included in the group of Below Poverty Line?
(a) Not getting sufficient meal twice
(b) Staying in slum area
(c) Involving in child labour
(d) Physical able
(d) Physical able
How many different methods exist to enumerate the people living Below Poverty Line?
How is it termed when people are not able to purchase the basic necessities with minimum price?
(a) Below poverty
(b) Absolute poverty
(c) Relative poverty
(d) Maximum poverty
(b) Absolute poverty
How is it termed when a group of people has less purchasing power compare to other people of society?
(a) Below poverty
(b) Absolute poverty
(c) Relative poverty
(d) Maximum poverty
(b) Absolute poverty
Which state stands first in poverty?
Which State registers the least poverty?
What percentage of poverty exists in Gujarat?
Which among the following generally cannot be considered as rural poor?
(a) Field workers
(b) Forced labourers
(c) Rickshaw pullers
(d) Temporary craftsman
(c) Rickshaw pullers
Which among the following is included in urban poor?
(a) Unemployed daily workers
(b) Field workers
(c) Forests or tribal people
(a) Unemployed daily workers
II. Very Short Answer Type Questions
Which organization presented the concept of poverty line first?
World Health Organization (WHO)
Which are the two methods to know the number of people living below poverty line?
On the basis of expenditure and income.
How many Five Years Plans are accomplished so far?
Which government has implemented “Maa Annapurna Yojana”?
Name the project/mission which is for the welfare of poor family women.
III. Short Answer Type Questions
What is poverty line? How is it determined?
Concept of poverty was first given by Director of World Health Organization (WHO). As per him, certain factors such as expenditure on food containing proper amount of required calories, clothing, accommodation, education, health, clean drinking water, electricity, sanitation facilities, transportation facilities, income, etc. determines the poverty of a person. Based on these factors the standard of living or say poverty line of the person is determined. This line is known as the poverty line.
People who are unable to get these things on a regular and constant basis are said to be living below poverty line i.e., BPL. It should be noted that poverty is a ‘qualitative’ concept i.e., we cannot simply measure it like the way we can measure income, expense, etc.
How did government initiate the Antyodaya Anna Yojana? How has it benefited people?
Income of people living below poverty line is very less. Such families are called families living below poverty line (BPL). The government identified such families and had put them in the category of ‘Antyoday Family’ or BPL family. Then the government gave such families the facility to purchase goods of daily needs such as rice, wheat, sugar, oil, salt and kerosene, etc. through Public Distribution System (PDS).
Such families can show their ration cards and purchase their monthly rations of these goods from ration shops or say Fair Price Shops. Antyodaya Anna Yojana has helped people to avail basic food commodities and hence raise their living standard.
State the methods of measure poverty.
There are two ways of knowing the number of people living below poverty line of say methods to measure poverty of a person. They are:
- Expenditure method: In this method, expenditure done by a family on various services or commodities is measured based on the expenditure made, the government decides the poverty of that family.
- Income method: In this method, the income earned by a family is measured and them the poverty level of that family is decided. The income method considers family as family of five members.
What is international poverty line? How is it decided? Where does India stand in terms of poverty as per the report of 2015?
Every country decides its poverty line based on its own standards. The question then arises as how to decide world poverty? The intenational poverty line is a solution to this problem. International poverty line is an international monetary threshold under which an individual is considered to be living in poverty as per global standards.
International poverty line is calculated by taking the poverty line from each country i.e. the value of the goods needed to sustain one adult and then converting it to dollars. In October 2015, the World Bank had decided per capita income as US $1.90 as per the prices of 2011. This means if a person is doing . expenditure of less than USD 1.90 per day, then he is to be considered living below the international poverty line.
Literacy is one of the main causes of rural poverty. Give reason.
There is a widespread illiteracy in rural Indian. Agriculture is the most important source of the villagers. These people lack knowledge regarding other employment about many things, government schemes laws and their rights. Hence, they become victim of exploitation and injustice which keeps them poor. Hence, literacy is one of the main causes of rural poverty.
Large gap between population growth and death-rate made India poor. Give reason.
After independence, India progressed in many sectors including health. So, the life expectancy of Indians increased and the death-rate decreased. On the other hand, population grew faster than death-rate. This widened the gap drastically between the birth-rate and death-rate of India. Contracy to this, India could not produce the basic and routine commodities needed on a daily basis to meet the rising population. This resulted in price rise which reduced the purchasing power of people, decreased their standard of living and made them more poor. Hence, large gap between population growth and death-rate made India poor.
What is Public Distribution System and Fair Price Shop?
To see that the poor may get essential commodities of daily need easily, continuously and at reasonable prices, the government started the system of Public distribution System (PDS). Under PDS, ration cards are issued to people who are either living below poverty line, or are poor or who belong to lower middle class.
These people can then go to Fair Price Shops (FPS) also called ration shops locally and obtain things of daily needs such as rice, wheat, sugar, kerosene, etc. either free of at very low rates. The government fixes as specific quantity for each item to be given on each ration card per month.
Into how many sections can we classify the poverty alleviation programmes of the government? Name them. What is government’s moto behind these programmes?
We can classify poverty alleviation programmes or schemes into five sections. They are:
- Wage based employment Programme
- Self-employment Programme
- Programmes related to food security
- Programmes related to social safety
- Programmes for elimination of poverty in urban areas.
Through these programmes, the government aims to provide employment in the field of agriculture and irrigation, road, food security, organic farming and selling of agricultural products. This helps poor people to earn income directly and hence, improve their financial condition.
Write a short note on Deendayal Upadhyay Gram Jyoti Yojana.
Deendayal Upadhyay Gram Jyoti Yojana makes an effort to supply uninterrupted electricity to the rural areas 24× 7, day and night. The scheme provides electricity to homes and farms at concessional rates. Under this scheme new sub-stations and electricity lines have been set-up to provide electricity facility 18,000 villages which do not have electricity. Then the government also provides subsidies to purchase agricultural equipment that run on electricity. This way the farms will get regular electricity and also their productivity will increase. The government also provides subsidy to obtain electricity through solar energy and to purchase solar equipment.
How does the government encourage organic farming?
The government provides help for the development of agriculture and plantation agriculture. Training is provided for organic farming and hence protecting the environment. Help is also provided to make pavilion for creeper crops. Training is also given for grading and packaging organic products and then selling those products in market. Along with environment protection the government also aims to reduce expenditure done by farmers in agriculture and enhance soil fertility.
What is Mukhya Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana?
Under Chief Minister Village Road Scheme (Mukhya Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana) schemes, the government plans to build village roads. Government helps the village panhayats by connection the village with one another through roads and highways. Moreover, programmes like construction of toilets in villages are also implemented.
How has the government involved the Members of the Parliament in upliftment of villages and removal of poverty?
To involve the Members of the Parliament in the upliftment of villages, the government launched a programme called Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana. Under this scheme, each Member of the Parliament (Sandad) need to choose one village each from the constituency that they represent, except their own village or their in-laws village and fix parameters and make it a model (Adarsh) village by 2016.
The Sansad put effort to improve education, health, employment facilities in the village adopted by them. The objective of this scheme is to stop migration of the people from the villages to city. Through this scheme the government also aims to create permanent public assets, develop opportunities for good life, rural upliftment, taking care of cultural heritage, creating opportunities for employment through social harmony, increase in human development, etc.
State the meaning of unemployment or unemployed.
A person whose age is 15-60 years, who is ready to work at the prevalent market rate of wages, has energy and qualification to work, who is in search of work but is not getting work, such a person is said to be unemployed. When such type of condition exists in a group it is called unemployment. Since such unemployment is faced by these people compulsorily, it is also called unemployment against wish. On the other hand, people who demand wages more than the prevalent market rate or who are not in age group of 15-60 or who are handicapped, weak, sick old, lazy, housewife or those who are not willing to work in spite of being capable are not considered as unemployed.
Poverty and unemployment are the two sides of the same coin. Give reason.
Poverty and unemployment are highly inter-related. Unemployment causes poverty. An unemployed person does not have the income to cany out his expenditure and hence remains poor. If poor people do not get employed for a long time they lose morale and motivation to get jobs. They may also enter into illegal and antisocial activities to earn money. This also means that even if they get employment in the future they may not take up jobs because of the wrong path they now move on and the easy money such illegal activities give them. Hence, one can say that poverty and unemployment are the two sides of the same coin.
The roots of anti-social activities and high crime rate majorly lie in unemployment. Give reason.
The youth are dynamic and aspiring to make their career and live a better life. When they do hot get work for a very long time they lose their morale and motivation to work. As a result, they lose their interest towards studies and become negative. Their social and mental condition becomes poor and they become disappointed psychologically. They may also become victim to over drinking and narcotic drugs. If this condition prevails for a long time, they may also get involved in antisocial or immoral activities like drug trafficking, illegal activities, robberies, recovering ransom, etc. Such a person becomes very harmful for himself, the family, society as well as the economy.
What is labour market and world labour market?
Labour market: The availability of employment and labour in a region in terms of their supply and demand is called labour market.
World labour market: When exchange of labourers takes place at international level i.e., among nations of the world, it is called world labour market. When labourers migrate from one country to another for employment, business, training or higher education, it is called movement of labour at international level.
Defective planning is a factor responsible for causing poverty. Explain.
After independence, due to ineffective planning, government focused more on heavy and large industries and neglected small industries. Emphasis was put on development of only urban areas. Poverty eradication programmes were not planned properly. Areas of education, health and training were also neglected. Thus, government did not plan effectively which later became one of the main reasons for poverty.
Unequal distribution of income causes poverty. Give reason.
The unequal distribution of income is quite widespread in our country. India is an agricultural country and hence rural people are dependent mainly on agriculture. Moreover, the benefits of government such as modern technology, irrigation projects, loans and subsidies, etc. are mainly obtained to the rich and literate farmers. Thus, the poor and ignorant farmers become more poor. The though of government that development of industries will generate more and surplus income by industrialists which will then benefit the poor also became wrong and the income remained in hands of rich industrialists only. Hence, we can say that unequal distribution of income causes poverty.
Development programmes have not been effective for remomng poverty. Give reason.
Government has implemented many development programmes for removing poverty. But these programmes along cannot remove poverty. They need coordination with many other factors. For example, over and above these programmes, the inequalities of income should be reduced, public distribution system has to be made effective, literacy must be increased and superstitions and blind beliefs must decrease. When the above things do not occur, the benefits of development programmes are enjoys only by rich and literate. Because of all these reasons, development programmes have not been effective for removing poverty.
In India, seasonal unemployment varies from state to state. Give reason.
India is an agrarian country. Agriculture depends on natural factors like soil, climate, availability of irrigation facilities, rain, etc. These factors and facilities vary from state to state. Moreover, the rural people are incapable of finding alternative occupations in the ‘off-agricultural seasons. As a result, people dependent on agriculture face unemployment varies from state to state.
The educational opportunities have increased but unemployment has not decreased considerably. Give reason.
Since independence the government has made concrete efforts to increase the literary in the country. Today, there are a very large number of schools, colleges and institutes. However, the problem is that people gain only bookish and theoretical knowledge. The education system is also equally defective.
Moreover, human resources, economic development, etc. are not planned properly. People have a craze for white collar jobs and hate going for labourious works. So, even though the educational opportunities have increased but unemployment has not decreased considerably.
Literacy can help to solve the problem of poverty. Give reason.
Literacy makes people aware of their rights and duties. Literacy can bring about a reduction in inequalities. Literacy helps in eradicating the evils of society such as landlordism, blind faith, superstitions, etc. A literate person can demand and enjoy his rights, he can fight against exploitation done to him and can also find various new employment opportunities. Thus, literacy helps in solving the problem of poverty.
The brain-drain migration at the international level is a big loss for Indian. Give reason.
Labourers migrate from one country to another country in search of better standard of life higher income, knowledge, etc. This migration is known as brain-drain migration. With these same intentions, many of our talented experts of various fields leave India and settle abroad. Due to their migration, India faces shortage of such talented experts and also its economy is affected. Thus, brain – drain migration at international level is a big loss for India.
IV. Long Answer Type Questions
‘India realized that prosperity and solutions for poverty alleviation lies in villages’. Explain this statement.
By the end of 11th Five Year Plan (2007-12), Indian learnt that it had largely neglected rural poverty in its plans. Since, a majority of people live in villages India realized that it is of prime importance to make such strategies that develop the rural areas. Although, economy develops much faster and easier at urban areas, but the base of developing urban areas is at villages. Most of the resources lie at village level.
Villages are the heart of Indian economy and so in order to keep them alive and prosperous, a large part of budget should have been spent after them. India also realized that real economic development, social development and cultural development of India is possible by developing villages only. Owing to these realizations India launched programmes such as ‘Gramoday se Bharat Uday’ which means development and upliftment of India by developing the village.
To make this dream a reality, the government started changing its strategies so as to improve life of rural India and hence alleviate poverty. For this, it started development of agriculture sector and cottage and small scale industries, construction works in villages, etc. The though of the government is that if employment at village level is increased, the poverty at rural areas will decrease.
State the figures of Indian poverty as given by various agencies.
(A) Poverty figure as per India: As per India, in 2009-10, the ratio of poverty in relation to India’s population was 29.8%. Thus, approximately 35.47 crore people were living in poverty. As per the new method of 2011-12, the number of poor reduced of 21.9%. This means now 27 crore Indian population was poor.
(B) Poverty figure as per World Bank: According to World Bank, in 2010, India’s total population was approximately 121 crore. Out of this 32.7% people lived below poverty line. This means about 45.6 crore people lived below poverty line in 2010.
(C) Poverty figure as per UNDP: As per the report of UNDP-2015, in 2011¬12, 21.92% of the total population of India was poor. Out of this poverty at the rural level was 25.7%-while that at urban level was 13.7%. This also means 26.93 crore Indians were poor. Out of this, 21.65 crore people were from rural area whereas only 5.28 crore people were from urban area.
State and define the types of unemployment seen in Indian economy and give examples. (Note: Most of these types of unemployment can be asked as individual questions too.)
The main types of unemployment that can be seen in Indian economy are:
(i) Seasonal unemployment: When a worker gets employment during certain season only and remains unemployed rest of the time of the year, it is called seasonal unemployment. For example, due to lack of irrigation facilities, irregularity in rainfall and lack of alternative employment farmers have to remain unemployed for 3 to 5 months in India.
(ii) Frictional unemployment: When in production process, because of change in demand or productions or due to change in taste and preference or arrival of new technology, new goods enter in the market and unemployment arises, then such unemployment is called frictional p, unemployment.
(iii) Structural unemployment: Indian society is backward and orthodox. Social backwardness, traditional orthodoxy, customs, illiteracy and lack of structural facilities result into such a weak social structure that the work force is unable to fulfi the skill- set that the employers are looking for Unemployment arising due to such reasons is called structural unemployment.
(iv) Disguised unemployment:
Sometimes more than required number of workers are involved in an occupation. Even if a few labourers are removed from work the total production remains the same. This means that such extra people though employed in that activity are creating disguised unemployment. In India, disguised unemployment is quite common in agriculture sector.
(v) Industrial unemployment: When a person remains unemployment for a certain period due to changes in industrial sector, the unemployment is known as industrial unemployment. For example, people who migrate from rural areas to urban areas, are semi-literate and have no special training or skills for the urban industrial units. Such people face unemployment till they acquire necessary skills. In the industrial field if anyone has to remain unemployed for short term or long term due to changes taking place in industrial sector, such a situation is called industrial unemployment.
(vi) Educated unemployment: A person who is educated but still unemployed is known as educated unemployed and such an employment is known as educated unemployment. Reasons for such unemployment include low economic development, bookish knowledge, defective education system, preference for while collar jobs, etc.
Differentiate between seasonal unemployment and disguised unemployment.
|Seasonal unemployment||Disguised unemployment|
|1. When a worker gets employment during certain season only and remains unemployed rest of the time of the year it is called seasonal unemployment.||When more than necessary people are employed in a work and if even by removing few of them from work the total production does not change then it is called disguised unemployment.|
|2. It is easy to measure seasonal unemployment||It is difficult to measure disguised employment.|
|3. Such unemployment lasts for some time but every year.||Such unemployment lasts for a very long time.|
|4. Such unemployment can be reduced in rural areas by providing/improving irrigational facilities, producing 2-3 crops a year, etc. ‘||Such unemployment can be reduced at rural areas by shifting some labourers from agriculture to other sectors.|
State year-wise unemployment rate of India and hence explain the condition of unemployment.
Rate of unemployment in India:
(i) Year 2009-10: In 2009-10, 34 persons per 1000 persons (i.e., 3.4%) were unemployment in urban India. Whereas in rural areas 16 person per 1000 persons (i.e., 1.6%) were unemployment.
(ii)Year 2011: According to census of 2011, 116 millions people were in search of employment. Out of this, 32 million people were uneducated unemployment where was 84 million were educated unemployment. Approximately 4,70 crore people in the age group of 15-24 years were unemployed.
(iii)Year 2013-14: According to the survey of labour bureau 2013-14, rate of unemployment in India was 5.4%. Rate of unemployment in women was 7.7% in 2013. The rate of unemployment in Gujarat was 12 per 1000 i.e., 1.2%. This suggests that condition of employment is good in India compared to other parts of the country. States that have more unemployment are Sikkim, Kerala, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jammu and Kashmir and Tripura.
States that have less unemployment are Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Karnataka, Chandigarh and Gujarat. As per an estimate, 15% highly educated people in India is youth. Moreover, 66% of the world youth, who are upto 35 years of age live in India. This is a very large number. If India can use this youth by providing proper employment and work environment then it can become superpower in the world.
What is brain-drain? State its effects.
When skilled labourers move out of the country for gaining education, higher technical studies and skill development, in search of more income, more facilities, better jobs, etc. it is called ‘brain-drain’, ‘external migration’ or ‘international migration’. A developed country has superior infrastructure and a very high quality of life. This catches the attention of people. So, people is lieu of high social status and life migrate to such countries.
People generally migrate only after they reach to adulthood. So, the country whose resources such as education, health facilities, etc. they have used for so many years to wasted. The migrants who might be talented and intelligent migrate to other countries at the time when their home countries should get the advantage of their skills, intelligence and talent. This is called brain-drain. India is facing a major problem of brain-drain. This is a major downside of globalization and liberalization. Effects of brain-drain are as follows:
Positive aspect: There is a huge demand of people having knowledge and skills in sectors like information technology, communication, technology, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, etc. Countries that are in need of these skills use several tactics and give attractive offers to people and employ them in their countries. So, we lose out our talented and intelligent population.
Negative aspect: In order to survive the foreign competition, companies or industries have to send their employees to foreign countries of obtaining required qualification, knowledge and skill. When companies send Indians to other countries on project basis, the Indians earn then- salaries in foreign currencies. This solves the problem of foreign currency to certain extent.
V. Fill in the blanks
1. Poverty is a …………………….. concept.
2. The rate of …………………… remain high due to mat nutrition.
3. ……………………. gave the concept of poverty line first.
4. The maximum poverty is observed in ………………………… the state in India.
5. …………………….. is the heart of Indian economy.
2. child death