Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 20 Social Problems of India and Challenges Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions, Notes Pdf.
Social Problems of India and Challenges Class 10 GSEB Solutions Social Science Chapter 20
Gujarat Board Class 10 Social Science Social Problems of India and Challenges Textbook Questions and Answers
I. Answer the following questions in detail.
Give an introduction of constitutional provisions for welfare and development of the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe.
The Constitution-makers were aware of the fact that the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes were the weaker sections of the Indian society. The following constitutional steps have been taken for the welfare and development of the Scheduled Castes (SC) and the Scheduled Tribes (ST):
Go through these Social Science Chapter 20 Social Problems of India and Challenges Class 10 GSEB Notes to score well in your exam.
- Article 15 has provided access to all public places to the SC and the ST.
- Article 16(4) empowers the state to make reservation in the government services for the SC and the ST.
- Article 17 has abolished the practice . of untouchability and prohibited its
practice in any form.
- Article 46 directs the state to protect the SC and the ST from exploitation and to look after their educational, social and economic welfare.
- Articles 330, 332 and 334 provide reservation of seats for the SC and the ST in proportion to their population in the Lok Sabha and the Vidhan Sabhas of the States.
- There is reservation of seats for the SC and the ST in the rural and urban local governments.
- Article 19(5) has given power to the state to restrict the movement and right to settle down in the tribal areas to protect the interests of the Scheduled Tribes.
- The Constitution has set up the National Scheduled Castes Commission as well as the Scheduled Tribes Commission to protect interests and their rights as well as promote welfare and development of the SC and the ST.
(Please note that the Question is on constitutional provision – the textbook has mixed up constitutional provisions, legal provisions and welfare programmes. The above given answer is (As per the requirement of the question).
State the social effects of terrorism.
The social effects of terrorism are as follows:
- Terrorism creates feeling of fear and anxiety among the people. They become suspicious of the sections of people that indulge in the anti-social activities like looting and robbery, stabbing and other violent acts.
- The effects of terrorism are felt by people of all age groups. Parents are worried about their children, wives are worried about their office-going husbands and children Eire worried about their elderly parents.
- It has adverse effect on education in the areas affected by terrorism, like Jammu and Kashmir.
- There is atmosphere of de§truct, mutual suspicious which destroys social harmony and feeling of brotherhood among the people.
- It creates social tension and communal conflicts. That results in chaos and uncertainty which shatters normal day-to-day life of the people cannot celebrate social occasions with festivity.
- It results first in social disintegration and later threatens national integration.
II. Answer the following questions in point-wise.
State the steps which should be taken to eradicate communalism.
Communalism is a hindrance to the progress of individual, society and nation. The first step in this direction was taken by the Constitution makers themselves. They declared India as a secular state and provided the right to freedom of religion to the citizens of India. Besides these, the following steps should be taken to eradicate communalism:
- The government should take punitive action against those who indulge in communal activities.
- Education plays a big role in promoting communal harmony. The prayers of all religions should be sung at the School Assembly. Religions festivals of all the religions should be celebrated so that at a very young age children develop respect for other religions.
- The Election Commission should not recognize communal parties. Strict code of conduct should be enforced to check communal propaganda.
- Message of secularism and religious tolerance should be spread across the country through radio, television and cinema. Special attention should be paid to those programs that promote nationalism and national integration.
- The leaders of political parties, along with the heads of the various sects, should work to combat communalism.
- Special efforts should be made to inculcate secular and scientific attitude among the youth. For this purpose government should take help of civil society organizations.
- People should be made to realize that national interest is above religions. They should rise above narrow communal interests, strive for national integration and nurture nationalism.
Give an introduction of constitutional provisions for welfare and development of minorities.
The term minorities imply the religions minorities that include the Muslims, the Christians and the Zoroastrians. After the linguistic reorganization of the states, every state has some linguistic minorities. For example, the Gujaratis are linguistic minority in Maharashtra. The Indian Constitution has made the following provisions for the welfare and development of religious and linguistic minorities:
- The Preamble declares India as a secular state, implying that there is no official religion of the state. It also promises social justice, equality of status and equality of opportunities to all citizens.
- Right to equality in the Articles 14 to 18 further elaborates that the state shall not discriminate in the matter of public employment and access to public places between the citizens on the basis of religion, caste, race, language, gender or place of birth. It also provide protection of law to every citizen.
- The right to freedom of religion in Article 24 enables the persons belonging to minorities to profess and practise their religion, establish institutions and collect funds for their religious activities.
- No religious instructions can be imparted in the education institutions that receive financial help (grants) from the state.
- Article 29 provides educational and cultural rights to religious, linguistic and cultural minorities to preserve their language, script and culture.
- Article 30 provides them the right to establish ‘minority’ educational institutions.
- Right to education provides right to free and compulsory education to children in the age group of 6 to 14 years.
- The Constitution has set up the National Minorities Commission to protect the interests and rights as well as to look after the welfare and development of minorities.
State the economic effects of terrorism.
The economic effects of terrorism are disastrous for individual, trade and commerce and national economy as a whole. These can be listed as under:
- Terrorist acts destroy the houses and property of individuals. The families of persons killed/injured during the terrorist violence suffer for the whole lifetime.
- Terrorist acts disrupt normal trade and business which results in loss of income.
- In terrorism infested states like Jammu and Kashmir, businessmen migrate to the other parts of the country.
- Tourism industry has suffered a great deal in Jammu and Kashmir due to continuous terrorism. In fact, a number of countries have issued advisory to their citizens not to travel to India.
- Industrialists, businessmen and their children are kidnapped by the terrorists also extort money from business and industries.
- Manufacturing activities along down of completely stop when industrial establishments are attacked by the terrorists.
- The railway lines, radio stations, roads, bridge and the government offices are destroyed. Crores of rupees are spent on reconstruction. In addition, the transport activities are disrupted. Besides this, the government has to spend crores of rupees for the safety and protection of these public premises.
- Terrorist organizations indulge in drug trafficking and black marketing to raise funds for their acts of violence.
- The overall effect is harmful for national economy as the process of economic development slows down.
III. Answer the following questions in brief.
Explain the difference between rebellions and terrorism.
Difference between rebellions and terrorism:
- The dividing line between rebellion (insurgency) and terrorism is very thin. The acts of terrorism in Kashmir is a form of insurgency. A section of the terrorists favour ‘Azad Kashmir, whereas Pakistan-sponsored terrorist organizations seek to make Kashmir a part of Pakistan.
- In a limited sense, insurgency is a domestic national problem; whereas terrorism has become a domestic as well as a global problem.
- Insurgency is defiance of the sovereign authority of one’s own country and
- Seeking independence by secession. Terrorism is an instrument used by the insurgent organizations.
- On the other hand, terrorism, per say, is directed against ‘enemy’ country and to destroy its major installations and international prestige.
- Insurgency is a local movement and has the support of the local people. The terrorist organizations, operating in a foreign land, may or may not have local support. However, the quantum of local support is insignificant. Only a handful misguided persons are acting against their own country.
- Both insurgency and terrorism are destructive forces and adversely affect the national economy of the subject country and hinder its economic development.
Write a note on the Naxalism.
Naxalite movement emerged in the Naxalbari region in West Bengal in 1967 as an armed protest against the atrocities committed by Zamindars. It was inspired by the Communist Revolution in China led by Mao-tse- Tung. Charu Mazumdar and Kanu Sanyal were the founders of the Naxalite movement. The Naxalites resort to all forms of violence that includes bomb explosions, attack on the militaiy personnel and government buildings, kidnapping of the public, officials and extortion. They forcefully collect money and food-grains from the people in Their territory’.
- Initially exploited peasants and landless workers willingly supported the Naxalites. However, over a period of time popular support has declined due to indiscriminate violence and exploitation of people.
- This movement has spread over 13 states. The most affected states are Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Odisha.
- People’s War Group (PWG) and Maoist Comunist Centre (MCC) are two major Naxal organizations.
- They represent localized protests against the state government and its police force.
IV. Choose the correct alternative of every question given below.
On what is India’s social structure based?
On which basis is the scheduled caste decided?
(d) None of these
Under which Article of the Constitution untouchability has been eradicated?
(a) Article 25
(b) Article 29
(c) Article 17
(d) Article 46
(c) Article 17
Which of the following is a global problem?
Match the following and choose the correct alternative:
(a) (1 – a), (2 – d), (3 – c), (4 – b)
(b) (1 – c), (2 – d), (3 – a), (4 – b)
(c) (1 – c), (2 – d), (3 – b), (4 – a)
(d) (1 – c), (2 – b), (3 – d), (4 – a)
(d) (1 – c), (2 – b), (3 – d), (4 – a)
Gujarat Board Class 10 Social Science Social Problems of India and Challenges Additional Important Questions and Answers
I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
By which other name is secularism known?
(a) Religion relativity
(b) Towards religion no staunchness
(c) Transformation of religion
(d) Obstruction in religion
(b) Towards religion no staunchness
What is the view of staunch people towards every citizen?
(a) Social perspective
(b) Wide view
(c) Communal perspective
(d) Secular perspective
(c) Communal perspective
Which of the following matters is harmful for democracy, national Integrity and development of nation?
Which Commission has been set up for protecting the rights, interest, welfare and for progress of minorities?
(a) National Rights Commission
(b) National Minority Commission
(c) National Minority Service Commission
(d) National Minority Development Commission
(b) National Minority Commission
Naxalism activity started from West Bengal is not seen in this state.
(d) Madhya Pradesh
II. Very Short Answer Type Questions:
Which country has the world’s largest democracy?
What hinders the progress of a person, society and nation?
In 21st century, which problem has become a global problem for human
Which activity is born from local dissatisfaction?
In which state first Naxalist movement started in India?
III. Short Answer Type Questions
Discuss the negative impacts of communalism.
Communalism is harmful in various ways. It leads to social tension in the country. People having communal feelings do not look every citizen equally. Such people consider themselves superior to others. People consider their own friends belonging to different religion as enemies or rivals. This creates an atmosphere of difference and harted. Communal tension leads to communal quarrels and even riots.
Communalism is harmful for democracy, national integrity and development of nation. Having feeling of communalism is not only against the society but also against the spirit on which our constitution is framed.
How can educational institutions, students and youth help in solving communalism?
Education plays an important role in eradicating communalism. Hence, our education curriculum contains positive things that students should learn and adopt in life. Moreover, prayers respecting humanity and all the religions are done at the schools which help students to maintain good and healthy feelings for all.
Such prayers and programmes on communal harmony should also be done at social functions and all other important functions. Youth must join hands and come forward to remove communalism. Attempts must be made at the social and educational level to develop secular feelings and scientific and logical attitude among youths.
The scheduled castes remained backward for a longer time. Explain it.
The roots of the problem of backwardness of few communities lie in history. In ancient time, the social structure was divided into four castes, namely Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. Every class could practice only that profession which the society decided. Today’s scheduled caste people fall into the class of Shudras. They were considered inferior and they were looked upon as low class people of the society.
People of this class had to live in the outskirts of the villages or only in some specific urban areas. These people were deprived of various social and religious rights. Due to all these reasons, people of these castes could not progress considerably. Hence, few communities or castes have remained backward in comparison to other in India.
There are special provisions in the Constitution for the weaker section of the society. Give reason.
Many castes in India have remained weak since ages. As per Constitution of India, all citizens are equal and hence all should be treated equally and given equal fundamental rights. But, the problem is that the weaker sections of the society were exploited for a very long time. By keeping same rules and regulations for all will not help the weaker sections of the society to develop. As a result, the government made special provisions in the Constitution for such people. These provisions give relaxation to people of backward class in government jobs, admission in colleges, etc.
The condition of SC and ST is improving. Give reason.
As per Constitution of India, all citizens are equal and hence all should be treated equally and given equal fundamental rights. With this aim, the constitution has provided several provisions for the people belonging to the scheduled class and scheduled tribe who earlier could not enjoy the fundamental rights. Hostels have been opened and a scheme has been launched to offer scholarship for children. Facilities for counselling and training classes for competitive examinations have also been started.
Minimum requirements of age and qualifications have been relaxed for the candidates of these groups for government jobs. Through all these and several other steps the state is taking care of the educational, social and economic interests of backward class of the state. Thus, slowly and gradually the condition of SC and ST has improved and is yet improving.
Differentiate between terrorism and insurgency.
|Terrorism is a global problem.||It is a problem of specific region or country.|
|Generally, it is against the whole world.||It is against the own government at state or national level.|
|It is inspired by religion or communalism.||It is caused by the local tribes.|
|It may or may not get local support.||It gets support from localities.|
Terrorism is extremely harmful both society and economically. Give reason.
Terrorist activities like kidnapping, robbery, violence, etc. cause fear, suspicion and destruct among people of all age groups. Terrorism leads to communal conflicts. This breaks the harmony and co-operation of the society. Terrorist activities destroy the healthy atmosphere needed for developing business and industry. As a result, the business and trade relations get adversely affected. When the business and industries do not develop, people’s economic condition become weak and they are not left with any work.
Terrorists destroy infrastructure such as conflicts. This breaks the harmony and co-operation of the society. Terrorist activities destroy the healthy atmosphere needed for developing business and industry. As a result, the business and traderailway, radio stations, roads, bridges, government offices, etc. Crores of rupees have to be spent to re-establish them. Thus, terrorism is extremely harmful both, socially and economically.
IV. Long Answer Type Questions
What is communalism? How does it affect the society and Constitution?
Communalism: When a person or a group of people identifies itself as an organized and aggressive unit, against any other religion or sect and behaves accordingly, it is called communalism. Even after so many years of independence and growing as a modem country, India has not been able to solve the problems of communalism.
Effects of communalism on society:
Feeling of communalism leads to communal tension in the society. People having strong communal feelings tr to show that their religion is superior compared to other religions and give more importance to religious interest Such people do not look at other people with equality. They look them with a communal perspective. These kind of feelings divide the society.
Effect of communalism on country and its Constitution:
Religion is a matter of faith and showing respect towards other religious. Mostly, every person follows one or the other religion or sect. Moreover, India is a secular country and so people of various religions live here. Having feeling of communalism is not only against the society but also against the spirit on which our Constitution is framed.
What is casteism? State its effect on Indian society.
Discriminating people on the basis of their castes is called casteism. Casteism exists in Indian society since the birth of society. So, in this regard, we can say that India’s social structure is based on casteism. However, the concept of casteism was quite different in those days. The Indian society divided people belonging to various communities into different castes on the basis of works they use to do. Thus, task-based division of communities was the base of the society. According to the Varna system, people were divided into the four castes namely
- Vashya and
The arrangement of residence was also based on the caste of people. People belonging to the higher castes earned higher income and those belonging to the lower castes earned major incomes. The lower caste people were always neglected and exploited.
V. Fill in the blanks
1. Unity in ……………. is a base of progress of India.
2. People having …………… ideology try to show superiority of their religion in comparison with other religious.
3. India’s social structure was based on ……………… .
4. ……………… is a hindrance for progress of any country.
5. Rebellion is a …………….. problem.