# GSEB Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 6 Application of Derivatives Ex 6.2

Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 6 Application of Derivatives Ex 6.2 Textbook Questions and Answers.

## Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 6 Application of Derivatives Ex 6.2

Question 1.
Show that the function given by f(x) = 3x + 17 is strictly increasing on R.
Solution:
f(x) = 3x + 17.
âˆ´ f'(x) = 3 = + ve for all x âˆˆ R.
â‡’ f is strictly increasing on R.

Question 2.
Show that the function given by f(x) = e2x is strictly increasing on R.
Solution:
We have: f(x) = e2x
â‡’ f'(x) = 22x
Case I : When x > 0, then
f’ (x) = 22x
= 2[ 1 + (2x) + $$\frac{(2 x)^{2}}{2 !}+\frac{(2 x)^{3}}{3 !}+\ldots$$ ]
âˆ´ f'(x) > 0 for all x > 0.

Case II : When x = 0, then
f'(x) = 2e0 = 2
âˆ´ f'(x) > 0 for x = 0.

Case III : When x < 0.
Let x = – y, where y is a positive quantity.
âˆ´ f’ (x) = 2e-2y = $$\frac{2}{e^{2 y}}$$
= $$\frac{2}{\text { Some +ve quantity }}$$ > 0
â‡’ f'(x) > 0 for x < 0.
Thus, f'(x) > 0 for all x âˆˆR.
Hence, e2x is strictly increasing on R.

Question 3.
Show that the function given by f(x) = sin x is
(a) strictly increasing in (0, $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$)
(b) strictly decreasing in ($$\frac{\pi}{2}$$, 0)
(c) neither increasing nor decreasing in (0, Ï€).
Solution:
We have: f(x) = sin x.
âˆ´ f'(x) = cos x
(a) f'(x) = cos x is positive in the interval (0, $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$)
â‡’ f(x) is strictly increasing in (0, $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$)

(b) f(x) cos x is negative in the interval ($$\frac{\pi}{2}$$, Ï€)
â‡’ f(x) is strictly decreasing in ($$\frac{\pi}{2}$$, Ï€)

(c) f’ (x) – cos x is +ve in the interval (0, $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$),
while f'(x) is -ve in the interval ($$\frac{\pi}{2}$$, Ï€)
â‡’ f’ (x) does not have the same sign in the interval (0, Ï€)
Hence, f(x) is neither increasing nor decreasing in (0, Ï€).

Question 4.
Find the intervals in which the function f given by, f(x) = 2x2 – 3x is (a) strictly increasing, (b) strictly decreasing.
Solution:
f(x) = 2x2 – 3x
âˆ´ f'(x) = 4x – 3.
f'(x) = 0 at x = $$\frac{3}{4}$$
The point x = $$\frac{3}{4}$$ divides the real line into two disjoint intervals

In the interval (-âˆž, $$\frac{3}{4}$$), f’ (x) is negative. Therefore, f is strictly decreasing in (-âˆž, $$\frac{3}{4}$$)
In the interval (-âˆž, $$\frac{3}{4}$$), f’ is positive. Hence, f is strictly increasing in the interval ($$\frac{3}{4}$$, âˆž)

Question 5.
Find the intervals in which the function f given by f(x) = 2x3 – 3x2 – 36x + 7 is (a)strictly increasing, (b) strictly decreasing.
Solution:
f(x) = 2x3 – 3x2 – 36x + 7
âˆ´ f (x) = 6x2 – 6x – 36 = 6(x2 – x – 6)
= 6(x -3)(x + 2)
â‡’ f'(x) = 0 at x = 3 and x = – 2.
The points x = 3, x = -2 divide the real line into three disjoint intervals viz (-âˆž, – 2), (- 2, 3) and (3, âˆž).

Now, f'(x) is +ve in the intervals (-âˆž, – 2) and (3, âˆž), since in the interval (-âˆž, – 2), each factor x – 3, x + 2 is negative.
âˆ´ f’ (x) = + ve
(a) f is strictly increasing in (-âˆž, – 2) u (3, âˆž).
(b) In the interval (- 2, 3). x + 2 is +ve and x – 3 is -ve.
âˆ´ f’ (x) = 6 (x – 3)(x + 2) = + x – = -ve.
âˆ´ f is strictly decreasing in the interval (- 2, 3).

Question 6.
Find the intervals in which the following functions are strictly increasing or decreasing :
(a) x2 + 2x – 5
(b) 10 – 6x – 2x2
(c) -2x2 – 9x2 – 12x + 1
(d) 6 – 9x – x2
(e) (x + 1)2(x – 3)3
Solution:
(a) We have : f(x) = x2 + 2x – 5.
âˆ´ f’ (x) = 2x + 2 = 2(x + 1)
The function/(x) will be increasing, if f ‘(x) > 0,
i.e., if 2(x + 1) > 0
â‡’ x + 1 > 0.
â‡’ x > – 1.
The function/(x) will be decreasing if f'(x) < 0,
i.e., 2(x + 1) < 0 â‡’ (x + 1) < 0.
â‡’ x < -1.
Hence, f(x) is strictly increasing in (- 1, âˆž) and strictly decreasing in (-âˆž, – 1).

(b) We have: f(x) = 10 – 6x – 2x2.
âˆ´ f'(x) = -6 – 4x = -2(3 + 2x)
Now, f(x) is increasing, if f'(x) > 0,
i. e., – 6 – 4x > 0.
i. e., – 4x > 6 â‡’ x < –$$\frac{3}{2}$$
and f'{x) is decreasing, if f'(x) < 0, i.e., if – 6 – 4x < 0,
i.e., – 4x < 6 â‡’ x > $$\frac{-3}{2}$$
Hence, f(x) is strictly increasing for x < $$\frac{-3}{2}$$, i.e., in the interval (-âˆž, $$\frac{-3}{2}$$) and strictly decreasing for x > $$\frac{-3}{2}$$ , i.e., in the interval ($$\frac{-3}{2}$$, âˆž)

(c) Let f(x) = – 2x3 – 9x2 – 12x + 1.
âˆ´ f'(x) = -6x2 – 18x – 12
= – 6(x2 + 3x + 2)
= – 6((x + 1)(x + 2).
f'(x) = 0 gives x = -1 or x = -2.
The points x = -2 and x = -1 (arranged in ascending order) divide the real line into three disjoint intervals namely, (- âˆž, – 2), (- 2, -1) and (-1, âˆž).
In the interval (-âˆž, – 2), i.e., -âˆž < x < – 2,
(x + 1) and (x + 2) are negative.
âˆ´ f'(x) = (-)(-)(-) = -ve.
â‡’ f(x) is strictly decreasing in (-âˆž, – 2).
In the interval (- 2, – 1), i.e., – 2 < x < – 1,
(x + 1) is -ve and (x + 2) is positive.
âˆ´ f'(x) = (-)(-)(+) = +ve.
â‡’ f(x) is strictly increasing in (- 2, -1).
In the interval (- 1, âˆž), i.e., – 1 < x < âˆž,
(x + 1) and (x + 2) are both positive.
âˆ´ f(‘x) = (-)(+)(+) = -ve.
â‡’ f(x) is strictly decreasing in (- 1, âˆž).
Hence, f(x) is strictly increasing for – 2 < x < -1 and strictly decreasing for x < -2 and x > – 1.

(d) We have: f(x) – 6 – 9x – x2
âˆ´ f'(x) = – 9 – 2x
Now, f(x) is increasing, if f'(x) > 0, i.e., if – 9 – 2x > 0,
i.e., if -2x > 9 â‡’ x < $$\frac{-9}{2}$$
and f(x) is decreasing, if f{x) < 0, i.e., if – 9 – 2x < 0,
i.e., -2x < 9 â‡’ x > $$\frac{-9}{2}$$.
Hence, f(x) is strictly increasing for x < $$\frac{-9}{2}$$ and strictly decreasing for x > $$\frac{-9}{2}$$.

(e) We have: f(x) = (x + 1)3 (x – 3)3
âˆ´ f'(x) = 3(x + 1)2 [$$\frac{d}{d x}$$ (x + 1)] . (x – 3)3 + (x + 1)3 . 3(x – 3)2 . $$\frac{d}{d x}$$(x – 3)
= 3(x + 1)2 (x – 3)3 + 3(x + 1)3(x – 3)2
= 3(x + 1)2(x – 3)2(x – 3 + x + 1)
= 6(x + 1)2(x – 3)2(x – 1).
For f{x) to be increasing : .
f’ (x) > o.
â‡’ 6(x + 1)2 (x – 3)2 (x – 1) > 0
â‡’ (x – 1) > 0 [âˆµ 6(x + 1)2(x – 3)2 > 0]
â‡’ x > 1
But f ‘(x) = 0 at x = 3 .
â‡’ f is strictly increasing in (1, 3) and (3, âˆž)
So, f is strictly increasing in (1, 3) âˆª (3, âˆž).
For f(x) to be decreasing :
f’ (x) < 0
â‡’ 6(x + 1)2 (x – 3)2 (x – 1) < 0
â‡’ (x – 1) < 0 [âˆµ 6(x + 1)2(x – 3)2 > 0]
â‡’ x < 1. But f ‘(x) = 0 at x = -1.
â‡’ f is strictly decreasing in (-âˆž, – 1) and (-1, 1). So, f is strictly decreasing in (-âˆž, – 1) u (-1, 1).

Question 7.
Show that y = log (1 + x) – $$\frac{2 x}{2+x}$$, x > -1 is an increasing function of x throughout its domain.
Solution:

Hence, y = log x – $$\frac{2 x}{2+x}$$ is an increasing function of x for all values of x > – 1.

Note : From now onwards, we shall be using the terms increasing and decreasing for strictly increasing and strictly decreasing respectively, unless stated otherwise.

Question 8.
Find the values of x for which y = [x(x – 2)]2 is an increasing function.
Solution:
Let y = [x(x – 2)]2 = x2(x2 – 4x + 4)
= x4 – 4x3 + 4x2
âˆ´ $$\frac{d y}{d x}$$ = 4x3 – 12x2 + 8x.
For the function to be increasing :
$$\frac{d y}{d x}$$ > 0
â‡’ 4x3 – 12x2 + 8x > 0
â‡’ 4x(x2 – 3x + 2) > 0
â‡’ 4x(x – 1)(x – 2) > 0
Now, $$\frac{d y}{d x}$$ = 0 gives x = 0 or x = 1 or x = 2.
These values divide the real line into three disjoint intervals, namely x < 0, 0 < x < 1 and x > 2.
âˆ´ For 0 < x < 1, $$\frac{d y}{d x}$$ = (+)(-)(-) = +ve
and for x > 2, $$\frac{d y}{d x}$$ = (+)(+)(+) = +ve
Thus, the function is increasing for 0 < x < 1 and x > 2.
For x < 0, $$\frac{d y}{d x}$$ = (-)(-)(-) = -ve so, the function is decreasing in x < 0.

Question 9.
Prove that y = $$\frac{4 \sin \theta}{(2+\cos \theta)}$$ – Î¸ is an increasing function of Î¸ in [0, $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$]
Solution:
We have, y = $$\frac{4 \sin \theta}{(2+\cos \theta)}$$ – Î¸

Question 10.
Prove that the logarthmic function is strictly increasing in (0, âˆž).
Solution:
Let f(x) = log x.
So, we shall prove that f(x) is an increasing function for x > 0.
Now, f'(x) = $$\frac{1}{x}$$
Clearly, when x takes the values > 0, we observe that
âˆ´ $$\frac{1}{2}$$ > 0.
â‡’ fâ€™(x) > 0.
Hence, f(Y) is an increasing function for x > 0. .
i.e., f(x) is an increasing function whenever it is defined, i.e., on (0, âˆž).

Question 11.
Prove that the function f given by f(x) = x2 – x + 1 is neither strictly increasing nor strictly decreasing on (- 1, 1).
Solution:
f(x) = x2 – x + 1
âˆ´ f'(x) = 2x – 1 = 2(x – $$\frac{1}{2}$$)
Now, – 1 < x < $$\frac{1}{2}$$ â‡’ (x – $$\frac{1}{2}$$)< 0.
â‡’ 2(x – $$\frac{1}{2}$$) < 0 â‡’ f'(x)<0.
and, $$\frac{1}{2}$$ < x < 1 â‡’ x – $$\frac{1}{2}$$ > 0.
2(x – $$\frac{1}{2}$$) > 0 â‡’ f'(x) > 0.
Thus, f'(x) does not have the same sign throughout the interval (-1, 1).
Hence, f(x) is neither increasing nor decreasing in (-1, 1).

Question 12.
Which of the following functions are strictly decreasing on (0, $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$)
(A) cos x
(B) cos 2x
(C) cos 3x
(D) tan x.
Solution:
(A) We have: f(x) = cos x f'(x) = – sin x
For 0 < x < $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$, sin x > 0
âˆ´ f’ (x) = – sin x < 0 in (0, $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$)
âˆ´ f'(x) is a decreasing function.

(B) We have : f(x) = cos 2x f'(x) = – 2 sin 2x
For 0 < x < $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$
or 0 < 2x < Ï€, sin 2x is positive.
âˆ´ f(x) is a decreasing function.

(C) We have : f(x) = cos 3x f'(x) = – 3 sin 3x
For 0 < x < $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$ â‡’ 0 < 3x < $$\frac{3 \pi}{2}$$.
Now, sin 3x is positive in 0 < 3x < Ï€.
âˆ´ f’ (x) < 0 â‡’ f(x) is decreasing.
And sin 3x is negative in Ï€ < 3x < $$\frac{3 \pi}{2}$$.
âˆ´ f'(x) > 0 â‡’ f(x) is increasing.
âˆ´ f(x) is neither increasing nor decreasing in (0, $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$).
Hence, f(x) is not a decreasing function in (0, $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$)

(D) We have: f(x) = tan x ‘
âˆ´ f’ (x) = sec2x > 0 for all x âˆˆ (0, $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$)
âˆ´ f (x) is an increasing function.
Thus, (A) cos x and (B) cos 2x are strictly decreasing functions on (0, $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$)

Question 13.
On which of the following intervals is the function f given by f(x) = x100 + sin x – 1 strictly decreasing?
(A) (- 1, 1)
(B) (0, 1)
(C) ($$\frac{\pi}{2}$$, Ï€]
(D) (o, $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$).
Solution:
Let f(x) = x100 + sinx – 1.
âˆ´ f’ (x) = 100 x99 + cos x
(A) For (- 1, 1), i.e., – 1 < x < 1, -1 < x99 < 1
â‡’ -100 < 100x99 <100
Also, 0 < cosx < 1
â‡’ f’ (x) can either be positive or negative on (- 1, 1).
âˆ´ f(x) is neither increasing nor decreasing on (- 1, 1).

(B) For (0, 1), i.e., 0 < x < 1,
x99 and cos x are both positive.
âˆ´ f'(x)> 0.
â‡’ f(x) is increasing on (0, 1).

(C) For ($$\frac{\pi}{2}$$, Ï€), i.e., $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$ < x < Ï€, x99 & positive and – 1 < cos x < 0.
âˆ´ f'(x) > 0.
â‡’ f(x) is increasing on ($$\frac{\pi}{2}$$, Ï€)

(D) For (0, $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$), i.e., 0 < x < $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$, x99 and cos x are both positive.
âˆ´ f’ (x) > 0.
â‡’ f(x) is increasing on (0, $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$).
So, none of the above options gives the correct answer.

Question 14.
Find the least value of a such that the function f given by f(x) = x2 + ax + 1 is strictly increasing on (1, 2).
Solution:
We have : f(x) = x2 + ax + 1
âˆ´ f’ (x) = 2x + a
Since f(x) is an increasing function on (1, 2), therefore
f’ (x) > 0 for all 1 < x < 2. Now, f “(x) = 2 for all x âˆˆ (1, 2) â‡’ f “(x) > 0 for all x âˆˆ (1, 2)
â‡’ f’ (x) is an increasing function on (1, 2).
â‡’ f’ (1) is the least value of f’ (x) on (1, 2).
But f’ (x) > 0 for all x âˆˆ (1, 2).Therefore,
f’ (1) > 0 â‡’ 2 + a > 0
â‡’ a > – 2
Thus, the least value of a is – 2.

Question 15.
Let I be any interval disjoint from (-1, 1). Prove that the function f given by f(x) = x + $$\frac{1}{x}$$ is strictly increasing on I.
Solution:

Thus, f'(x) > 0 for all x âˆˆ I.
Hence, f’ (x) is strictly increasing on I.

Question 16.
Prove that the function f given by f(x) = log sin x is strictly increasing on (o, $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$) and strictly decreasing on ($$\frac{\pi}{2}$$, Ï€).
Solution:
We have: f(x) = log sin x
âˆ´ f’ (x) = $$\frac{1}{\sin x}$$ . cos x = cot x.
When 0 < x < $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$, f'(x) is +ve.
âˆ´ f(x) is increasing.
When $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$ < x < Ï€, f'(x) is -ve.
âˆ´ f(x) is decreasing.
Hence, f is strictly increasing on (0, $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$) and strictly decreasing on ($$\frac{\pi}{2}$$, Ï€)

Question 17.
Prove that the function f given by f(x) = log cos x is strictly decreasing on (0, $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$) and strictly increasing on ($$\frac{\pi}{2}$$, Ï€).
Solution:
f(x) = log cos x
âˆ´ f’ (x) = $$\frac{1}{\cos x}$$ (- sin x) = – tan x.
In the interval (0, $$\frac{\pi}{2}$$), f’ (x) is -ve.
âˆ´ f is strictly decreasing in the interval.
In the interval ($$\frac{\pi}{2}$$, Ï€), f’ (x) is +ve.
[Since tan x is -ve in this interval]
âˆ´ f is strictly increasing in the interval.

Question 18.
Prove that the function given by f(x) = x3 – 3x2 + 3x -100 is increasing in R.
Solution:
f(x) = x3 – 3x2 + 3x – 100
âˆ´ f’ (x) = 3x2 – 6x + 3 = 3(x2 – 2x + 1)
= 3(x – 1)2
Now for x âˆˆ R, f'(x) = (x – 1)2 â‰¥ 0
i. e., f’ (x) â‰¥ 0 for all x âˆˆ R.
Hence, f(a) is increasing in R.

Question 19.
The interval in which y = x2 e-x is increasing with respect to x is
(A) (-âˆž, âˆž)
(B) (-2, 0)
(C) (2, âˆž)
(D) (0, 2)
Solution:
f(x) = x2e-x
âˆ´ f’ (x) = 2x e-x + x2(- e-x)
= xe-x(2 – x) = e-x x(2 – x).
Now e-x is positive for all x âˆˆ R
f’ (x) = 0 at x = 0, 2.
x = 0 and x = 2 divide the number line into three disjoint intervals viz (-âˆž, 0), (0, 2) and (2, âˆž).

(a) Interval (-âˆž, 0)
x is -ve and 2 – x is +ve
âˆ´ f'(x) = e-x x(2 – x) = (+)(-)(+) = -ve.
â‡’ f is decreasing in (-âˆž, 0).

(b) Interval (0, 2)
f’ (x) = e-x x(2 – x) = (+)(+)(+) = +ve.
â‡’ f is increasing in (0, 2).

(c) Interval (2, âˆž)
f'(x) = e-x x(2 – x) = (+)(+)(-) = -ve.
â‡’ f is decreasing in the interval (2, âˆž).
âˆ´ Part (D) is the correct answer.