Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 10 Social Science Notes Chapter 5 India’s Heritage of Science and Technology summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
India’s Heritage of Science and Technology Class 10 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 5
India’s Heritage of Science and Technology Class 10 GSEB Notes
→ Science means systematic knowledge and technology means the practical utility of systematic knowledge.
→ The great sages of our ancient India have gifted invaluable heritage of science to the world. They have contributed in the field of metallurgy, Chemistry, Science of medicine, Surgery, Mathematics, Astronomy, Astrology, Vastushastra and Physics.
→ Modem age researches have proved that India has scientific attitude along with religious outlook. India use metallurgy in their practical life.
→ A metallic idol of a female dancer discovered from Indus Valley Civilization, statue of Buddha belonging to the Kushan period, numerous metal idols of Chola period, Statues of Nataraj, Rama, and other gods-godessess, birds and animals, and betel-nut cutters are considered to be the best examples of metallic art.
→ Chemistry is an experimental science.
→ Acharya Nagaijuna, a learned Buddhist of Nalanda University, is known as an Acharya in the field of chemistry. He wrote books like ‘Rasaratnakar’ and ‘Arogyamanjari’.
→ He advocated the use of Alopathy along with herbal medicines. Use of mercury as medicine was initiated by him.
→ The copper statues of Buddha reflect an expert knowledge and sjdll in the field of chemistry.
Science of Medicine and Surgery:
→ India attained an unprecedented achievement in the field of medicine and surgery.
→ Maharshi Charak, Maharshi Sushruta and Vagbhatta are the pioneered the Indian medical science and surgery.
→ Maharshi Charak has written a book ‘Charak Samhita’ in which he mentioned over 2000 medicinal herbs.
→ Maharshi Sushruta has mentioned instruments used in surgery.
→ Vagabhatta has written an important book ‘Vagbhatta Samhita’.
→ All these books are very helpful for doctors. They could even stop blood circulation with bowl-shaped bandage.
→ They could skillfully operate on abdomen, kidney, cataract, hernia, stone, piles and bladder, etc.
→ They could classify, also join the broken or displaced bones and extract the things pierced into the body easily and skillfully. Also they could gave dietary directions after post-recovery of diseases.
→ They had knowledge of plastic surgery as well joining nose and ears. They teach surgery on the dead body or on the wax statue.
→ Books on diseases related to Elephants ‘Hasti Ayurveda’, Horses ‘Ashwashastra’ are well known.
→ Many mathematical discoveries were considered to be made in India. For example, discovery of zero, decimal systems, algebra, theorem of Boddhayan, Geometry and Arithmetic.
→ Aryabhatta discovered zero. The process of writing zero after figures was discovered by Grutsamad.
→ Decimal system for measuring and weighing instruments had been found from the remains of ‘Harappa’ and ‘Mohanjodaro.
→ Bhaskaracharya has written books like ‘Lilawati Ganit’ and ‘Bij Ganit’.
→ Apastambha had decided the measurement of sacrificial pits in Shulva Sutras.
→ Aryabhatta had written many other books like ‘Dash Gitika’ and ‘Aryabhattiyam’.
→ The main principles of astronomy in his book ‘Aryasiddhanta’.
→ Many works related to Astronomy had been written in India.
→ Planets and their movements, constellations and other celestial objects were used for calculations through which astrology and astronomy were developed remarkably.
→ Brahmagupta popularised the laws of gravitation in his book ‘Brahmasiddhant’.
→ Varahmihir was the great astrologer and astronomer who divided astrology into three sections
i. e. Tantra, Hora and Samhita.
→ Vastushastra of India is being recognized, dignified and praised by many countries of the world.
→ Vastushastra is described in ‘Brihat Samhita’. Brahma, Narad, Brahaspati, Bhrugu, Vashistha, and Vishwakarma have made unique contribution in the field of Vastushastra. Rana Kumbha of Mewar revived this science in 15th century.
→ Vishwakarma was the first architect of Gods. He divided the Vastushastra into eight sections.
→ As time passes by changes are taking place regarding the principles and understanding of Vastushastra.
→ Indian culture is blending of science and religion, traditional ideals and practical knowledge,
which is rarely seen in other countries of the world.
India’s Heritage of Science and Technology Class 10 GSEB Notes Important Terms
• Science: It means systematic knowledge.
• Technology: It means the application in our practical life.
• Peaceful co-existence: Any country either big or small, it sustains independently without harming its independence is called peaceful co-existance.
• Rasratnakar: Acharya Nagarjuna had written a book on chemistry, it is called Rasratnakar.
• Vijay Stambh: 24 feet high from pillar weighing 7 tonnes built by Chandragupta II at Delhi. It is the best example of chemistry of India. It is called Vijay Stambh.
• Charak Samhita: The book written by Maharshi Charak in which he has mentioned over 2000 medicines is called Charak Samhita.
• Sushruta Samhita: It is written by Maharshi Shushrut in which he mentioned sharp instruments of surgery. It is called Sushrut Samhita.
• Shailya Chikitsa: The process of surgery is known as Shailya Chikitsa.
• Vishwakarma: He was the first architect of Gods. He divided Vastushastra into eight sections.