Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 19 India: Human Life summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
India: Human Life Class 9 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 19
India: Human Life Class 9 GSEB Notes
→ Indian can be divided into four zones according to life style :Westem India, Northern India, Southern India, and Eastern India.
→ Life Style : Western India Major states of Western India are Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and Goa. It also includes Union Territories of Diu – Daman, Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
→ Food : Staple food in Rajasthan is millet and dal-bati.
→ People living along the sea coasts of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Goa eat mainly rice and fish.
→ Dress : Rajasthan is a dry and desert area hence there is less diversity in vegetation.
→ Men generally wear dhoti, angarakhun and colourful head gear (Paghadi), while women put on sari, petticoat and blouse.
→ Traditional dress of men in Maharashtra is dhoti and paheran and a cap or a head gear on the head. Women wear sari in Maharashtrian way.
→ The traditional dress in Madhya Pradesh is similar to that of the neighbouring states of Gujarat and Maharashtra.
→ In Goa also. Men wear dhoti and paheran, and women wear sari, petticoat and blouse.
→ In Gujarat mainly men put on dhoti, Kurta, white cap or headgear (turban) on head, while women put on sari, petticoat and blouse.
- There is less rainfall in Rajasthan due to deserts, so most of the houses have flat top.
- Rural people have in the houses made of grass and soil.
- People in Gujarat live in modem type of buildings made from brick – cement.
- In Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Goa also, urban people live in well laid out houses with many modem amenities.
- Roofs of the buildings in Konkan, which receives heavy rainfall, are slant.
- Rajasthani people mainly speak Hindi while Marwadi language is spoken in Marwad.
- Gujarati is the main language of people in Gujarat, kachchhi dialect is spoken in Kachchh.
- Hindi is main language in Madhya Pradesh. Marathi and Konkani are also languages spoken in Maharashtra and Goa respectively.
Festivals and Holy Days : Rajasthan has peculiar type of folk songs and folk dance.
- Ghummar, kachchighodi and Kalbelia are very famous folk dances of Rajasthan.
- Gujarat is world famous for her raas – garba.
- Maharashtra celebrates Ganesh Chaturthi festival w ith great pomp.
- Besides, its Lavni dance is also very famous.
- In Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, the Shiv Ratri is celebrated with much enthusiasm.
- People in Western India celebrate festivals like Diwali, Navratri, Shivratri, Dashera, Ganesh Chaturthi, Eid, Moharram, Christmas,Mahavir Jayanti, Peteti, Chetti Chand, Buddha Jayanti etc.
- Pushkar in Rajasthan and Siddhpur in Gujarat are known for their camel trade on Kartik Pumima (Ful moon day). A fairs for trading donkeys is also very famous in Gujarat.
- Other famous fairs in Gujarat are Tametar Fair near Thangadh, Bhavnaath Fair in Junagadh and Dang Darbar Fair anch Dangs.
- Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh and Nasik in Maharashtra are famous for holding Ardha Kumbha Fair and Goa for Carnivals.
Life Style – North India
• North India includes the states of Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Delhi etc.
- Wheat is the staple food in Punjab and Haryana.
- Punjabi people use tandoori roti made from wheat and a variety of parathas very frequently.
- Panir based mixed vegetables is a special choice of Punjabis.
- Lassi is a well known drink in Punjab.
- Main food of people from Jammu and Kashmir is rice, meat and fish.
- Roti, daal and rice is the staple food of people in Uttar Pradesh.
- The dress which Punjabis and Haryanvi put on is known as Punjabi Dress.
- Women put on salwar and kameez.
- Men also wear loose shirt (jhabbho) and salwar.
- Men also put on Punjabi styled head gear.
- Kashmiri people wear Kashmiri dress, and during winter, they put on clothes covering entire body.
- The dress in Himachal and Uttarakhand is similar to that of Jammu and Kashmir.
- Uttar Pradesh wear dhoti and paheran and tie a scarf on the head.
- Ladies wear sari, petticoat and blouse.
- Punjab and Haryana get less rainfall, so the building there have flat roof tops.
- Urban people live in the buildings made of bricks and cement.
- Wood is used more in the construction of houses in Jammu and Kashmir.
- In Himachal and Uttarakhand, people live in two storeyed buildings.
- Uttar Pradesh urban people live in houses made from bricks and cement.
- Punjabi people speak Punjabi language and Haryanvi speak Hariyani language.
- Uttar Pradesh use Hindi and Urdu languages.
- Urdu is major languages in Jammu and Kashmir, Kashmiri and Dongari languages are also spoken there.
- The State language of Himachal Pradesh is Pahadi.
Festivals and Holy Days :
- Baisakhi and Lahiri are major festivals in Punjab.
- Bhangda is a famous folk dance of Punjab.
- Eid and Moharram festivals are celebrated in Jammu and Kashmir.
- Dashera is celebrated in a special way in Kullu of Himachal Pradesh.
- Holi is the major festival in Uttar Pradesh.
- Kathak is a well known dance style of Uttar Pradesh.
- Kullu’s Dashera Fair is a well known fair.
- In Punjab, a Martyrs Fair is held.
- Kumbh Mela and Magh Mela are famous fairs of Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh.
- In Uttarakhand, Kumbh and Ardha Kumbh fairs are famous.
Life Style – South India
- The states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Union Territory of Puducherry’ are included in South India.
- Southern Indian is a peninsula and each state has sea coast.
- In southern states, rice and fish form the main diet.
- Idli, dhosa, meduvada etc. along with the coconut chutney are famous in South India.
- Due to hot and humid weather in south, people wear loose garments.
- Lungi, paheran, khes on the shoulder and occasionally a head gear are common attire among men.
- Women wear sari in southern style, petticoat and blouse.
- Kerlities wear lungi or short dhoti.
- Ladies put on flower strips (veni) on their head.
- People live in houses of brick and cement.
- People living near sea coast use coconut leaves in their huts.
- Languages in South India belong to Dravid Family of languages.
- Kannad language is spoken in Karnataka.
- Other languages spoken are Telugu in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, Tamil in Tamil Nadu and Malayalam in Kerala.
Festivals and Holy Days :
- Andhra Pradesh is famous for its Kuchipudi Dance.
- Shiv Ratri, Makar Sanskranti and Baisakhi festivals are celebrated there.
- Mysore in Kamtaka celebrates Dashera, Eid and Navratri festivals.
- Kathakali is a well known dance of Kerala.
- Onam, Christmas, Eid, Shivratri are other festivals celebrated in Kerala.
- Bharat Natyam is very famous dance style of Tamil Nadu and Pongal is its main festival.
Life Style – Eastern India
- The States of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Assam, Arunanchal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Sikkim, Meghalaya etc. are included in Eastern India.
- Food : People in Bihar, Jharkhand. Chhattisgarh and West Bengal take roti, vegetables.
- ‘Rosogulla’ and ‘Sandesh’ are their favourite sweets in West Bengal.
- Bihari people wear dhoti, zabbho. khes on shoulder and a Pagh (head gear).
- Women put on sari, petticoat and blouse.
- There is not much difference in the attire of people in Jharkhand, Assam and Odisha.
- Bengali ladies wear sari in Bengali style and gents puts on plaited (with folds) dhoti and silken zabbho.
- People in plain region live in houses made of bricks and cement.
- People in mountains use wood and bamboo in their houses.
- Slating roofs are seen in the regions of heavy rainfall.
- Language : Hindi is spoken in Jharkhand, Bihar and Chattisgarh, Maithili, Bhojpuri and Magdhi are dialects
Spoken in Bihar.
- Assami in Assam, Udia in Odisha and Bengali in Bengal are other spoken languages in the respective states.
- Garo and Khasi languages are spoken in Meghalaya.
- Mizo dialect is used in Mizoram.
- Festivals and Holy Days : Bihu of Assam and Odissi in Odisha are famous dance styles.
- The Chariot Procession of Jagganathpuri is world famous.
- Festivals of Chhath and Bhaiyaduj in Bihar and Durga Puja in Bengal are celebrated with great pomp.