Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 20 Disaster Management summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
Disaster Management Class 9 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 20
Disaster Management Class 9 GSEB Notes
→ A disaster may be natural or man catastrophic or disastrophilic, originated in the interior of the earth or in atmosphere.
Type of Disaster
Disaster Management have divided the disasters into two catagories :
- Natural Disasters
- Man-induced Disasters
- Flood is a natural event and is the result of continuous heavy rainfall.
- Floods become dangerous when some construction is carried out ignoring human activities, drainage pattern, slope of the land etc., and damage lives and property on a large scale.
- Due to atmospheric disturbances, a sudden strike is made by severe storms.
- These storms are known as Cyclone in Indian sub-continent. Hurricane and Tomedo in USA, as Typhoon along the coasts of china and Japan.
- Due to tectonic activities in the interior of the earth, an earthquake is felt.
- Its major areas are the regions with weaker relief on the surface of the earth.
- Probable earthquake regions can be identified, but an earthquake can not be forecast.
- The destructive and powerful sea waves are called Tsunami.
- These are generated at the sea bottom due to earthquake having a rating of 7 or more on Richter scale, or by a volcanic eruption with in sea or by a large scale land slide on ocean floors.
- Tsunami occurs mostly due to earthquakes on ocean floors, so these are also known as oceanic earthquake waves. These waves travel very fast in circular pattern from the place of their origin.
- Whey they approach coasts and shallow sea, they turn into devastating form.
- A drought is a highly destructive hazard, leaving a long lasting impact.
- It is connected with water and food which are very much needed for the existence of living organisms
- The problem of drought occurs in regions of monsoon climate where the rainfall is irregular and is very scanty.
Forests Fire :
- A forest fire is the fire which occurs in forests and creates devastation.
- Except for lightning, all other reasons for a forest five are man – induced.
- Among them, throwing of burnt butts of cigarettes – bidies, or match sticks, burning things left by tourists, pilgrims or shepherds etc. are the major reasons.
- Once the forest fire starts, it spreads in the directions of wind, advancing at a velocity of about 15 km per hour on all sides.
Industrial Accidents :
- In industrial townships, mills, factories etc. there is a chance of accidents even after enough precautions are taken.
- Such accidents results into deaths of people, live stock and damage to property.
- Human errors are at the base of industrial accidents.
Bhopal Gas Tragedy :
- Union Carbide, located at Bhopal which is the capital of Madhya Pradesh, used to produce insecticides.
- In the process of production a poisonous gas Mic was used.
- According to official figures, about 2500 people died and thousands of residents in Bhopal were affected by this poisonous gas.
Viral Diseases :
- When a large number of people over much wider area become victim of any disease, it is called epidemic.
- People lose their lives due to the disease.
- There is a faster increase in the number of patients of viral diseases than the general diseases.
Terrorist Attacks :
- Terrorism does not care for any race, community or a region.
- It is the enemy of mankind.
- The immoral destructive acts performed by a person or a group is called Terrorism.
- Inhuman acts like destruction of property, creating an atmosphere of fear and thereby draw attention towards their demands, genocide, abduction etc. are terrorists weapons.
- This problem is faced by many countries in the world.
- Most of the persons are not aware of its root cause or purpose.
- Their presence is only for crowding or for immitation.
- Such riots make the administrative set-up, which is established by Law, unstable.
Traffic problems :
- Growing urbanization has created the traffic jam problems in almost all large cities.
- There is a long queue of vehicles.
- When those vehicles which undertake relief work and rescue operations are stranded over the road, people lose their life, e.g. stranding of 108 ambulence.
- Increase in traffic, negligence of drivers and due to the ignorance in understanding the signs and symbols put along the road, cause many accidents every year and man people lose their lives.
- Death-rate in India is very high due to the accidents on the roads.
- Some times, a victim of an accidents may become invalid permanently.
- Heavy traffic causes loss of time as well as fuel.
Impact of Disaster of Human Life
- Disasters affect almost every body. The effects of disasters can be grouped into four categories, as under.
- Effects on Relief, Effects on Human Life, Effects on Economy, Social Effects of Disaster.
Rehabilitstion after the Disaster
- Many buildings have to be re-constructed after an earthquake, flood or a cyclone.
- New employment has to be created after drought, and provision for farm implements has to be made in agricultural field.
- After viral epidemics, programmes of mass education and public awareness have to be arranged for safety in future.
- Thus, the rehabilitation work after a disaster is a very challenging one.