GSEB Solutions Class 7 Social Science Chapter 6 Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

Gujarat Board GSEB Solutions Class 7 Social Science Chapter 6 Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.

Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 7 Social Science Chapter 6 Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

GSEB Class 7 Social Science Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

Textbook Questions and Answers

Think over the reasons.

Question 1.
What kind of arrangements were made in the Mughal era to ensure Justice’ to all?
Answer:

  • In order to see that every individual gets justice, Mughal Emperor Jahangir had fixed a golden bell in the window of his palace
  • A golden chain whose one end was tied with the bell was also hanged outside the palace.
  • Anyone could pull the chain to ring bell and seek justice from Jahangir.

Question 2.
A lot of monuments were constructed during Shah Jahan’s reign because
Answer:

  • There was peace during the reign of Shah Jahan.
  • Hence, agriculture, trade and commerce, import and export of goods increased manifold.
  • So, the treasury of Mughal Dynasty was full
  • Shah Jahan used the wealth to construct a lot of grand structures.
  • Hence, maximum construction took place during Shah Jahans reign.

Question 3.
Why did the decline of the vast Mughal Empire start during the reign of Aurangzeb?
Answer:

  • The great Mughal Empire which was set up in 1526 C.E. started declining from 1707 C.E.
  • Mughals were tired of fighting with the Marathas in the south for 25 long years.
  • At last, tired Aurangzeb retreated towards north.
  • He was quite old then. After his death, the Mughal Empire started declining in India.
  • After Aurangzeb. the Mughals started fighting for the throne. None was capable of handling the large empire properly.
  • It is also believed that narrow-minded policies of Aurangzeb was also the reason for downfall of Mughals in India.

GSEB Solutions Class 7 Social Science Chapter 6 Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

Let us understand.

Question 1.
During the Mughal era, most of the foreign trade was routed through the ports of Gujarat.
Answer:

  • Khambhat. Bharuch. Surat and Diu were important sea ports during the Mughal rule.
  • Indian goods such as shawls of Lahore, dhurries (mats) of Fatehpur Sikri, cotton cloth of Gujarat and Mustin of Dhaka were in huge demand across the world.
  • Owing to these factors, businessmen of Gujarat used to trade through the ports of Gujarat.
  • They exported Indian goods and imported foreign goods.

Question 2.
People became more pleasure-loving during Shah Jahan’s reign.
Answer:

  • During the Mughal rule. agriculture, trade and commerce and import-export of goods increase manifold.
  • As a result, the treasures of Mughals remained full.
  • Hence, the atmosphere of the Royal court and palace was full of worldly and sensuous pleasures.

Discuss.

Question 1.
Shah Jahan and architecture
Answer:
Art:

  • Mughals were very fond of grand palaces and structures.
  • Palaces and domes were constructed with beautiful combination of Hindu and Muslim style architecture.
  • Shah Jahan had built world-famous buildings. He was known as ‘Architect of Palaces’. He even patronized and motivated many artists.
  • Rajputs also contributed significantly in art and architecture of that period.
  • Jahangir liked to collect paintings.

Literature:

  • There was peace during the Mughal period and so literature developed quite well.
  • Sanskrit books were translated and several historical books were written. Also, Hindu literature got good support.
  • Dohas of Kabir and Saakhi of Rahim became famous.
  • Rashkan, a disciple of Acharya Vitthalriathji of Vaishnav community composed Hindu poetry.
  • Moreover, many foreigners visited India during the Mughal period. They also described administrative system and social life of India in their travelogues.
  • French travelers Tavernier and Bernier also visited India.
  • Bernier stayed in India for 12 years. He mentioned that Mughals spent too much on the army.
  • He also appreciated that Indian textiles were very famous in the European and Asian markets.

GSEB Solutions Class 7 Social Science Chapter 6 Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

Question 2.
Aurangzeb’s policies
Answer:
Results of the religious policy of Aurangzeb:
The religious fanaticism of Aurangzeb overshadowed his virtues. His reversal of Akbar’s policy
of religious toleration resulted in weakening the entire structure of the Mughal empire. It led to
several conflicts and wars in different parts of the country.
These conflicts were:
(i) Conflict with the Jats
(ii) Conflict with the Satnamis
(iii) Conflict with the Sikhs
(iv) Conflicts with the Rajput’s
(v) Conflict with the Marathas.
All these rebellions destroyed the peace of the empire, disrupted its economy, weakened the
administrative structure, diminished its military strength, led to the failure of Aurangzeb to make any impact. Ultimately all these contributed to the downfall of the Mughal enterprise.

Let us learn.

Question 1.
During the Mughal era, the members of the royal family and courtiers were pleasure-loving and led a life of luxury.
Answer:
During the Mughal rule, agriculture, trade and commerce and import-export of goods increase manifold.
As a result, the treasures of Mughals remained full.
Hence, the atmosphere of the Royal court and palace was full of worldly and sensuous pleasures.

Question 2.
Foreign travellers and representatives visited India and stayed here in the Mughal period.
Answer:

  • India was world-famous for its several products.
  • India traded for these products with several countries.
  • This attracted many foreigners towards India.
  • British officers Hawking and Thomas Roe obtained permission to trade with India.
  • Similarly, French traveler, Bernier visited India and got so much impressed that he stayed here for 12 years.
  • Thus, due to such reasons, many foreigners settled in India during the Mughal period.

Question 3.
Shivaji laid the foundation and established the vast Maratha kingdom.
Answer:

  • Shivaji started capturing forts at an early age of 16.
  • He won forts of Torana, Chakan, Sinhgadh. Purandar, etc.
  • After several battles with rulers of Bijapur and Mughals, he was coronated in 1674.
  • He was a great Maratha ruler. He worked hard to establish and maintain peace in the state.
  • He formed cabinet of ministers for efficient administration of the state.
  • Hence, it is rightly said that Shivaji laid the strong foundation of Maratha Empire.

Think
In the present time, what percentage of the budget is allotted for the army in our country?
Why are short verses like ‘Doha’ and ‘Sakhi’ popular among people?

(Activity)
Get information about the way in which the festivals were celebrated in your village/city 30 years ago.
Find out about the products made in your village/city that do not have to be imported.

GSEB Solutions Class 7 Social Science Chapter 6 Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

GSEB Class 7 Social Science Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

Additional Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write a short note on Jahangir.
Jahangir:

  • After the death of Akbar, his son Salim ruled the Mughal Dynasty from 1605 to 1627 C.E.
  • Salim adopted the name Jahangir i.e. one who conquers the world.
  • Prince Khusrau revolted against Jahangir and so the latter imprisoned him.
  • Jahangir blamed that Sikh Guru Arjun Singh had helped Prince Khusrau for revolting. Hence, Jahangir killed Guru Arjun Singh.
  • Hawking and Thomas Roe, the two British representatives, visited India during Jahangir rule. They obtained permission to carry out trade in India.
  • Jahangir’s wife Noorjahan was very beautiful and ambitious. She handled most of the administration of the state.

Question 2.
Write a short note on Shah Jahan.
Answer:

  • After Jahangir, Shah Jahan ruled the Mughal Dynasty from 1627 to 1658 C.E.
  • Shah Jahan considered agriculture as the pillar of prosperity. Hence he gave much importance to agriculture.
  • He continued the revenue system developed by Akbar.
  • He appointed honest and hard-working officers.
  • He also developed a new city called Shahjahanabad near Delhi.
  • Mughal Dynasty earned higher revenue during Shah Jahan’s period compared to the period of other rulers.
  • Shah Jahan was famous for constructing grand buildings.
  • He constructed world famous Taj Mahal, Diwan-e-Aam and Diwan-e-Khas in Red Fort, Rang Mahal, Moti Masjid, Jama Masjid in Delhi, etc.
  • Under Shah Jahan, the Mughals witnessed the Golden Age.

Question 3.
Write a short note on Aurangzeb.
Answer:
Aurangzeb:

  • After Shah Jahan, his son Aurangzeb ruled the Mughal Dynasty from 1658 to 1707.
  • Aurangzeb had a very sharp memory.
  • He was very well-versed with Arabic and Persian languages.
  • He also did in-depth study of Quran-e-Sharif, the holy book of Islam.
  • However, he disliked art, music and painting.
  • Mughal Dynasty expanded even more during his rule. However, later it also started falling during his rule.

People who fought with Aurangzeb:

  • Brave Rajput leader Durgadas fought with Aurangzeb for 25 long years in order to free Marwar.
  • Similarly, Aurangzeb fought for 25 years with Shia states of Bijapur and Golkonda in South.
  • Shivaji of Maharashtra established the Maratha power in South India and constantly fought with Aurangzeb.
  • Jats and Sikhs also revolted against Aurangzeb.

GSEB Solutions Class 7 Social Science Chapter 6 Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

Question 4.
Describe social life during the Mughal period.
Answer:
Social life during the Mughal period:

  • During the Mughal period, Feudal system existed in the society.
  • The kings were involved in worldly and sensual pleasures.
  • The kings and aamirs liked wearing gaudy clothes with lots of ornaments.
  • As per Abul Fazal, a history writer, 1,000 expensive clothes were stitched every year for the king.
  • During the Mughal period, businessmen of Gujarat had huge businesses. Large number of goods were
  • imported and exported from the ports of Gujarat.
  • Festivals were celebrated with grandeur.
  • During Jahangir’s rule, Dusshera was celebrated in grand manner.
  • None of the British traders had permission to take away wealth from India.

Question 5.
Explain the economic condition during the Mughal period.
Answer:

  • Economic condition during the Mughal period:
  • The economic condition during the Mughal period is well described in Abul Fazal’s book.
  • At that time ‘Ratal’ was the unit to weigh things.
  • 1 Ratal was equal to one score. (Today, 1 score = 20 kg)
  • Villages were self-reliant and so villagers produced almost all the necessities they required.
  • Shawls of Lahore, dhurries (mats) of Fatehpur Sikri, cotton clothes of Gujarat and muslin cloth of Dhaka were famous worldwide.
  • Goods were imported and exported from the ports of Khambhat, Surat, Bharuch, Malabar and Bengal.

Question 6.
Give a brief introduction of Veer Durgadas.
Veer Durgadas:

  • When the king of Jodhpur died, his wife and son were under the threat of Mughals.
  • It was Veer Durgadas who took them at a safe place and gave them shelter.
  • After that, with the help of loyal soldiers, he protected Marwar from Aurangzeb for 25 years. Aurangzeb
  • could not win Marwar and finally had to negotiate with the Rajputs.

GSEB Solutions Class 7 Social Science Chapter 6 Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

Question 7.
Write a detailed note on Chhatrapati Shivaji.
Chhatrapati Shivaji:

  • Shivaji was born in 1603 C.E. He was born in the family of Shahji Bhonsle in the Shivneri palace.
  • His mother Jijabai and mentor Dadoji Kondev trained him.
  • Shivaji dreamt of having an independent state in the small estate of Pune.
  • He inherited characteristics of self-respect, fearlessness and intelligence from his mother.
  • His mentor gave him lessons on politics.
  • He also had great friends like Tanaji.
  • Shivaji slowly and gradually expanded his army.
  • He started capturing forts at the early age of 16.
  • He won forts of Torana, Chakan, Sinhgadh, Purandar, etc.
  • After several battles with rulers of Bijapur and Mughals, he was coronated in 1674.
  • He was a great Maratha ruler. He worked hard to establish and maintain peace in the state.
  • He formed cabinet of eight ministers for efficient administration of the state.

Question 8.
How did Mughal rule end in India?
Answer:

  • The great Mughal Empire which was set up in 1526 C.E. started declining from 1707 C.E.
  • Mughals were tired of fighting with the Marathas in the south for 25 long years.
  • At last, tired Aurangzeb retreated towards north.
  • He was quite old then. After his death, the Mughal Empire started declining in India.
  • After Aurangzeb, the Mughals started fighting for the throne. None was capable of handling the large empire properly.
  • It is also believed that the narrow-minded policies of Aurangzeb was also the reason for downfall of Mughals in India.

Answer in one or two sentence(s)
[Note: Here, answers are given in short for memorizing easily. Students must write full sentences.]

Question 1.
Write the names of Mughal kings in chronological order.
Answer:
Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb.

Question 2.
What does the word ‘Jahangir’ means?
Answer:
‘Jahan’ means world and ‘girl means win, meaning winner of the world.

Question 3.
Which English visited India during the reign of Jahangir? Why?
Answer:
Hawking and Thomas Roe; to seek permission to trade in India.

GSEB Solutions Class 7 Social Science Chapter 6 Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

Question 4.
Who handled the administrative work of the kingdom of Jahangir?
Answer:
His wife Nurjahan.

Question 5.
Which famous monuments were constructed by Shah Jahan?
Answer:
Taj Mahal, Diwan-e-Aam and Diwan-e-Khas in Red Fort, Rang Mahal, Moti Masjid, Jama Masjid of Delhi, etc.

Question 6.
Which states were against Aurangzeb?
Answer:
Marwar, Bijapur, Golkonda, Maharashtra, the states of south India, etc.

Question 7.
What type of clothes did Mughal Kings were?
Answer:
Gaudy clothes with lots of ornaments.

Question 8.
List a few items of India that were world-famous during the Mughal Era.
Answer:
Shawls of Lahore, dhurries (mats) of Fatehpur Sikri, cotton clothes of Gujarat and muslin of Dhaka.

Question 9.
Why is Shah Jahan known as the ‘Architect of Palaces’?
Answer:
Because he had built many world-famous architects and palaces.

Question 10.
Who wrote Dohas?
Answer:
Kabir

GSEB Solutions Class 7 Social Science Chapter 6 Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

Question 11.
Who composed Hindi poetry during the Mughal Era?
Answer:
Raskhan, the follower of Vaishnav Acharya Viththalnathji.

Question 12.
What attracted foreign travellers to India during the Mughal Era?
Answer:
The administrative system and the social life of the Mughal Era.

Question 13.
Which foreign travellers visited India during the Mughal Era?
Answer:
Tavernier and Bernier from France.

Question 14.
What had Bernier mentioned in his travelogue about India?
Answer:
A. Mughal rulers spent too much on army.
B. Indian textiles were very famous in the markets of Europe and Asia.

Question 15.
Who were against the Mughal rule? OR With whom did Aurangzeb have constant conflicts?
Answer:
A. Durgadas of Marwar.
B. Shivaji Maharaj of Maharashtra.
C. Shia states of Bijapur and Golkonda.
D. Jat and Sikhs.

GSEB Solutions Class 7 Social Science Chapter 6 Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

Question 16.
With what title was Shivaji coronated?
Answer:
Chhatrapati.

Question 17.
Which qualities did Shivaji inherit from his mother?
Answer:
Self-respect, fearlessness and brilliance.

Question 18.
Which forts did Shivaji win?
Answer:
Torana, Chakan, Sinhgadh, Purandar, etc.

Question 19.
How did Shivaji administer his kingdom?
Answer:
With the help of his cabinet of ministers.

Question 20.
When did the Mughal empire’s downfall begin?
Answer:
In 1707 C.E., during the reign of Aurangzeb.

Question 21.
What did Kabir and Rahim write?
Dohas and Sakhi.

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Who was the most inspiring ruler of the Mughal dynasty?
(A) Akbar
(B) Jahangir
(C) Aurangzeb
(D) Shah Jahan
Answer:
(B) Jahangir

Question 2.
The downfall of the Mughal Empire began during the reign of ……………… .
(A) Akbar
(B) Jahangir
(C) Aurangzeb
(D) Shah Jahan
Answer:
(C) Aurangzeb

GSEB Solutions Class 7 Social Science Chapter 6 Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

Question 3.
Jahangir killed Sikh Guru …………….. .
(A) Govind Singh
(B) Gurunanakji
(C) Arjun Singh
(D) Teg Bahadur
Answer:
(C) Arjun Singh

Question 4.
Jahangir allowed the ……………………… to trade In India.
(A) English
(B) Dutch
(C) French
(D) Portuguese
Answer:
(A) English

Question 5.
The reign of ……………….. earned maximum revenue during the Mughal dynasty.
(A) Akbar
(B) Jahangir
(C) Shah Jahan
(D) Aurangzeb
Answer:
(C) Shah Jahan

Question 6.
Aurangzeb did not like …………………….. .
(A) Art
(B) Music
(C) Painting
(D) All of these
Answer:
(D) All of these

GSEB Solutions Class 7 Social Science Chapter 6 Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

Question 7.
Durgadas fought to free ………………. .
(A) Malwa
(B) Bijapur
(C) Marwad
(D) Golkonda
Answer:
(C) Marwad

Question 8.
Aurangzeb had constant conflicts with ………………… .
(A) Bijapur
(B) Golkonda
(C) Maharashtra
(D) All of these
Answer:
(D) All of these

Question 9.
Aurangzeb had conflicts with ………………….. .
(A) Sikhs
(B) Mongolians
(C) Buddhists
(D) All of these
Answer:
(A) Sikhs

Question 10.
Which festival was celebrated in a grand manner during Jahangir’s reign?
(A) Ganesh Chaturthi
(B) Deepavali
(C) Rakshabandhan
(D) Dusshera
Answer:
(D) Dusshera

Question 11.
A lot can be known about the Mughal period from the book written by ………………….. .
(A) Mulla Dopiya
(B) Abul Fazal
(C) Maheshdas Birbal
(D) Abdul Rahim
Answer:
(B) Abul Fazal

Question 12.
The shawls of ……………… were very famous during the Mughal Era.
(A) Lahore
(B) Rawalpindi
(C) Jaipur
(D) Coimbatore
Answer:
(A) Lahore

GSEB Solutions Class 7 Social Science Chapter 6 Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

Question 13.
The reign of …………………… is considered the Golden Age of Mughal Era.
(A) Akbar
(B) Shah Jahan
(C) Humayun
(D) Jahangir
Answer:
(B) Shah Jahan

Question 14.
Veer Durgadas gave refuge to the Queen of ……………………… .
(A) Jaisalmer
(B) Jaipur
(C) Jodhpur
(D) Jamshedpur
Answer:
(C) Jodhpur

Question 15.
Shivajl was born in ……………………… CE.
(A) 1601
(B) 1603
(C) 1605
(D) 1607
Answer:
(B) 1603

Question 16.
Shivaji was coronated in …………………. .
(A) 1662
(B) 1668
(C) 1672
(D) 1674
Answer:
(D) 1674

Question 17.
Mughal empire started declining in ……………………… C.E.
(A) 1772
(B) 1753
(C) 1729
(D) 1707
Answer:
(D) 1707

Question 18.
Shivaji started capturing forts at the age of ………………… .
(A) 12
(B) 14
(C) 16
(D) 18
Answer:
(C) 16

Question 19.
The Maratha ruled over ………………….. India.
(A) East
(B) North
(C) South
(D) Allover
Answer:
(C) South

GSEB Solutions Class 7 Social Science Chapter 6 Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

Question 20.
Shah Jahan was Imprisoned in the by Aurangzeb.
(A) Taj Mahal
(B) Moti Masjid
(C) Red Fort
(D) Fort of Agra
Answer:
(D) Fort of Agra

Fill in the blanks

Question 1.
Jahangir was the son of …………………. .
Answer:
Akbar

Question 2.
Many architectural monuments were constructed during the reign of …………………….. .
Answer:
Shah Jahan

Question 3.
……………………… adopted the name Jahangir.
Answer:
Salim

Question 4.
…………………… revolted against Jahangir.
Answer:
Prince Khusrau

Question 5.
Jahangir’s wife was ………………….. .
Answer:
Nurjahan

Question 6.
Shah Jahan believed that ………………………… is the pillar of prosperity.
Answer:
agriculture

Question 7.
Shah Jahan established a new city called …………………. .
Answer:
Shahjahanabad

Question 8.
Aurangzeb was well-versed with ………………….. and …………………………. languages.
Answer:
Arabic, Persian

Question 9.
Aurangzeb had studied ………………………. in depth.
Answer:
Quran-e-Sharif

Question 10.
Aurangzeb had conflicts with Shia states namely ………………………. and …………………… .
Answer:
Bijapur, Golkonda

GSEB Solutions Class 7 Social Science Chapter 6 Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

Question 11.
Shivaji ruled over …………………… .
Answer:
Maharashtra

Question 12.
Abul Fazal wrote that every year …………………….. expensive clothes were stitched for the king.
Answer:
1000

Question 13.
……………………….. Ratal was equal to one score.
Answer:
55.5

Question 14.
The muslin of ………………….. was very famous.
Answer:
Dhaka

Question 15.
Mughal palaces were decorated in ………………….. and ……………….. styles.
Answer:
Hindu, Muslim

Question 16.
Shah Jahan is widely remembered as the …………………. .
Answer:
Architect of Palaces

Question 17.
Bernier stayed in India for …………………………………. years.
Answer:
12

Question 18.
Indian textile was very famous in the markets of ……………………. and ………………. during the Mughal Era.
Answer:
Europe, Asia

Question 19.
Durgadas protected Marwar from the Mughals for ……………………… years.
Answer:
25

Question 20.
Shivaji’s father’s name was ……………………… .
Answer:
Shahji Bhonsle

Question 21.
Shivaji’s mother’s name was ………………………. .
Answer:
Jijabai

Question 22.
Shivaji’s mentor’s name was ………………………. .
Answer:
Dadoji Kondev

Question 23.
Shivaji dreamt of an independent state in the small estate of ………………….. .
Answer:
Pune

Question 24.
Shivaji’s best friend’s name was ………………….. .
Answer:
Tanaji

Question 25.
The Mughal empire was established in …………………….. C.E.
Answer:
1526

True or False

Question 1.
Jahangir killed Guru Arjun Singh on the pretext that the Guru had helped Kusharu for the revolt.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Akbar considered agriculture as the pillar of prosperity.
Answer:
False

GSEB Solutions Class 7 Social Science Chapter 6 Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

Question 3.
Aurangzeb has a very sharp memory.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Akbar did an in-depth study of Quran-e-Sharif, the holy book of Islam.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
Rajput leader Shivaji fought with Aurangzeb for 25 years.
Answer:
False

Question 6.
Abul Fazal was a famous history writer.
Answer:
True

Question 7.
Gujarat had a booming trade during the Mughal period.
Answer:
True

Question 8.
1 ratal = 20 kg.
Answer:
True

Question 9.
As per Bernier, the Mughals kept a large army and used to spend huge amounts on it.
Answer:
True

Question 10.
Marathas made Mughals tired and frustrated of wars.
Answer:
True

Question 11.
The Mughals could not find an able king after Aurangzeb.
Answer:
True

Question 12.
During the Mughal rule, maximum construction took place in the rule of Sahajahan.
Answer:
True

GSEB Solutions Class 7 Social Science Chapter 6 Mughal Empire: Golden Age and Downfall

Activity
1. Against the name of each King, write the years during which he ruled:
Babur
Humayun,
Shershah,
Akbar,
Jahangir,
Shah Jahan,
Aurangzeb.
Answer:
1. Babur 1526-1530.
2. Humayun 1530-1540 and 1555-1556.
3. Shershah 1540-1545.
4. Akbar 1556-1605.
5. Jahangir: 1605-1627.
6. Shah Jahan: 1627-1658.
7. Aurangzeb: 165P-1707.

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