GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Human Resources

Gujarat Board GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Human Resources Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.

Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Human Resources

GSEB Class 8 Social Science Human Resources Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Answer the following questions in short.
Question 1.
Write the importance of Census.
Answer:
Collecting and cataloguing information about people living in a country or any particular region of the country is known as the ‘Census’. It is done every 10 years under the regulation of the central government. In our country, the last census was carried out in the year 2011 (the 7th time). A census is done for the five-year development plans of the country with regard to necessities like food, water, housing facilities, industries, electricity, employment, education, conservation, etc. It is important to have a census.

Question 2.
Why does the population increase at a fast rate?
Answer:
During the last century, especially in the last five decades, the rate of population growth is a cause of worry. In 2001, the population of India was 102.87 crores which has increased to 121.01 crores in 2011.

Reasons for population growth:
1. Immigration for trade, education or settling abroad.
2. Lower Death Rate: Two centuries ago the rate of population growth was less, since infant mortality rate and death rate of pregnant women, as well as death due to various deadly diseases, was high. Diseases like cholera, plague, TB (tuberculosis), typhoid, etc. were incurable. People succumbed to famines, etc.

Because the modes of transport and roads were improper, people could not get proper medical facilities. This scenario has completely changed today. Nutritious food is easily available, communicable diseases are under control due to advanced medical treatment and vaccination programmes. Pre-and-post-disaster management has improved and affected people are rehabilitated faster. So death rate has decreased whereas population growth rate has increased.

3. Increased Life-expectancy: Moreover, the standard of living has improved and so the average life span which Was about 40-41 years in 1920 has increased to 63-64 years. However, birth rate has not decreased noticeably. The factors responsible for increase in birth rate are: illiteracy, superstitions, orthodox thinking, social customs wherein a male child is considered important, child marriage, poverty, widow re-marriage, negative attitude towards the idea of a small family, etc.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Human Resources

Question 3.
What do you understand by birth rate and death rate?
Answer:
The total live births in one year per 1000 persons in a given area is known as ‘birth rate’.

Question 4.
Define population density.
Answer:
Population Density: The average number of people living in per sq km of area is known as population density of that area.

Question 5.
What do you understand by migration?
Answer:
When humans shift from one place for their livelihood or for their progress, it is known as ‘migration’.

2. Explain the terms given below.

Question 1.
Literacy
Answer:
An individual who is 6 years old or above and who can read, write and understand any one language is said to be ‘literate’. The literacy rate has been rising consistently in India and this is a positive sign. In 1901 the literacy rate in India was 5.35 % and this has increased to 74.04% in 2011. It is highest in Kerala at 93.91 %. In Gujarat, the literacy rate is 79.31 %.

Question 2.
Age structure
Answer:
The population of the nation comprises of three age groups:

  1. Children – 0 to 14- year-olds,
  2. Adults-15 to 59-year-olds and
  3. Senior citizens – those aged 60 years or above.

According to 2001 census – 35 – 40 % population is below 18 years, 7-10% is senior citizens and the rest is adults. Japan has the highest proportion of senior citizens.

Question 3.
Population composition
Answer:
Population Composition: The classification of total population into various categories is called ‘population composition.’ Categorization is done according to male-female, age, rural-urban, religion, linguistic groups, etc.

3. Answer the following questions in detail:

Question 1.
Give information about qualitative changes in population?
Answer:
Qualitative changes: The changes observed in health and education indicate qualitative change. This change alters behaviour, lifestyle and living standards. The main reasons responsible for these changes are dedication, hard work, patriotism, enthusiasm, courage, etc. These factors bring about socio-cultural changes.

Question 2.
Why is the human resource considered as the most important resource for a nation?
Answer:
Human resource is the human capital of our country. Development of the country depends not only on the area of the country or natural resources but it is also based upon the quality of human resources that contributes a lot to economic development. Therefore, human resource is considered as the most important resource for a nation.

Qualitative human population is also called ‘human resource’. The quality of human resource depends on education and intelligence. Skilled citizens like doctors, engineers, sportsmen, industrialists, farmers and other responsible citizens are human resources and an asset to the country. Our youth and children are potential resources which need to be developed well.

When human resources of a nation are educated, trained, strong and healthy they can foster development of that nation. Carefully planned use of human resources builds the foundation for development of the nation. To keep pace with developed nations it is very important to have good quality human resources and eliminate factors that undermine this resource.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Human Resources

4. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.

Question 1.
The density of population during the census 2011 was ………………….. .
Answer:
second

Question 2.
India stands at the …………………….. position in the world in terms of population.
Answer:
16

Question 3.
The people following …………………… religion are maximum in number in India.
Answer:
382

Question 4.
The sex ratio in Gujarat as per the census 2011 was ……………………. .
Answer:
918

Question 5.
Approximately ………………………. % of total world’s population resides in India.
Answer:
Hindu

Activity

1. Prepare a chart showing the factors affecting the population distribution.
2. Draw a graph showing the sex ratio, literacy rate and increase in population in India.
3. Collect information from magazines and newspapers in form of articles, poems, cartoons regarding child marriage, literacy and over population-related problems, etc. and display the cuttings on the bulletin board.
4. Discuss in your group and make notes on factors affecting the increase ¡n population and density of population.
5. Every student will write information about his/ her family which will include details like name, age, gender, address, education, profession, etc. Collect this information from the whole class and classify the information into various categories such as: education up to SSC, HSC, graduation, post-graduation, etc.

6. Fill in the details in the table given below after referring to the information about the census 2011 on – http://www.census2011 .co. in or refer to the map given on page no. 40 of your textbook.

Males Females Total
Country
State
District
Village / City

7. Let’s think about this and discuss :

  • Lesser the children, better the development.
  • Small family, happy family.

8. Use different colours to indicate the five states that have the maximum density of population in Map no. 6.2 given on page 44 of your textbook.
9. Make a list of all those foreign countries where people from your area have settled.
10. Make a list of all those states from where people have come to Gujarat and settled down.
11. Count the number of languages used on our currency note. Make a list of those languages that are not mentioned.
12.  Prepare a chart showing the factors affecting population distribution.
13. Draw a graph showing the sex ratio, literacy rate and increase in population in India.
14. Collect information from magazines and newspapers in form of articles, poems, cartoons, regarding child marriage, literacy and over population-related problems, etc. and display the cuttings on the bulletin board.
15. Discuss in your group and make notes on factors affecting the increase in population and density of population.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Human Resources

GSEB Class 8 Social Science Human Resources Intext Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Areawise India stands 7th in the world. List the first six countries bigger than India in terms of area.
Answer:
Six countries bigger in area than India are: USA, China, Brazil, Canada, Russia and Australia. India is the 7th largest country in the world.

Question 2.
Census for which birds and animals has been conducted in Gujarat?
Answer:
A census for Asiatic lions, reptiles, insects along with carnivores like Indian leopards, Indian cobras, jungle cats, striped hyenas, golden jackals, Indian mongoose, palm civets, etc. was carried out in Gujarat. Herbivores like chital, nilgai, sambar, antelope, chinkara, etc. were also counted. Reptiles like crocodiles, monitor lizards, pythons, etc.

Among birds were counted – vultures, crested serpent eagles, Bonelli’s eagle, crested hawk-eagle, brown fish owl, Indian eagle owl, rock bush quail, woodpecker, oriole, treeswift and Indian pitta were counted in the recent census conducted in Gujarat.

Question 3.
Why is Uttar Pradesh densely populated?
Answer:
Uttar Pradesh is densely populated because it is a plain and has a lot of water due to being situated on the banks of River Ganga. Fertile plains make agriculture easy, so many people live in this state.

Question 4.
Why Sikkim is sparsely populated?
Answer:
Sikkim is sparsely populated due to its rugged terrain and high altitude. It is not easy to live in such areas. So, though there is a lot of water in this state it is sparsely populated.

Question 5.
Observe the family with the highest number of members and the least number of members in your society. List out the comforts and discomforts faced by these families.
Answer:
The family with more members is always in a fight for something or the other. All the members are never satisfied and so there are always complaints, whereas in the family with less members there is enough for all and so everyone is happy. They live a harmonious life and enjoy more benefits than the members of the large family do. They can plan their entertainment and holidays easily whereas the big family cannot afford such luxuries. Life in the small family is much better than life in the large family.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Human Resources

Question 6.
What is the significance of a healthy population for the development of a nation?
Answer:
A healthy population is free of illness. In other words, people are more vigorous and can easily take up challenges or work longer hours for prosperity. When each individual prospers, the nation will automatically grow and prosper too. This will lead to fast development. Thus, a healthy population is the key to a nation’s complete development and progress.

GSEB Class 8 Social Science Revolutionaries of India Additional Important Questions and Answers

Choose the correct alternative from those given below each question:

Question 1.
After how many years is the census done in India?
A. Four
B. Five
C. Ten
D. Twelve
Answer:
C. Ten

Question 2.
At which position is India with respect to land area?
A. Third
B. Fourth
C. Fifth
D. Seventh
Answer:
D. Seventh

Question 3.
Which country is first in the world with respect to population?
A. China
B. Russia
C. USA
D. India
Answer:
A. China

Question 4.
In India, what was the percentage of population rise during the last decade?
A. 1.2%
B. 0.3%
C. 1.4%
D. 1.6%
Answer:
D. 1.6%

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Human Resources

Question 5.
Which district of Gujarat has the highest population?
A. Surat
B. Vadodara
C. Ahmedabad
D. Rajkot
Answer:
C. Ahmedabad

Question 6.
Which district of Gujarat has the highest population density?
A. Ahmedabad
B. Anand
C. Gandhinagar
D. Surat
Answer:
D. Surat

Question 7.
Which state of India has the highest population?
A. Uttar Pradesh
B. Bihar
C. Maharashtra
D. West Bengal
Answer:
A. Uttar Pradesh

Question 8.
In which state is the population least in India?
A. In Lakshadweep
B. In Diu and Daman
C. In Sikkim
D. In Goa
Answer:
A. In Lakshadweep

Question 9.
What percentage of population resides in rural areas in Gujarat?
A. 28 %
B. 38 %
C. 62 %
D. 72 %
Answer:
C. 62 %

Question 10.
Out of the total population, what is the percentage of senior citizens in India?
A. 4 %
B. 7 %
C. 10 %
D. 15 %
Answer:
C. 10 %

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Human Resources

Question 11.
Which state of India has the highest sex ratio?
A. Kerala
B. West Bengal
C. Uttar Pradesh
D. Haryana
Answer:
Kerala

Question 12.
In India, what was the average percentage of literacy in 2011?
A. 64 %
B. 84 %
C. 74 %
D. 43 %
Answer:
C. 74 %

Question 13.
Which state is first in India with respect to literacy rate?
A. Maharashtra
B. Tamil Nadu
C. Bihar
D. Kerala
Answer:
D. Kerala

Question 14.
In India, which state has the least literacy rate?
A. Arunachal Pradesh
B. Bihar
C. Tamil Nadu
D. Rajasthan
Answer:
B. Bihar

Question 15.
In India, on what basis have states been formed?
A. Religion
B. Caste
C. Language
D. Natural boundaries
Answer:
C. Language

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Human Resources

Fill in the blanks with proper words or numbers in the following statements:

Question 1.
In India, the last census was done in the year …………………… .
Answer:
2011

Question 2.
The total surface area of India is ………………….. sq km which is …………………. % of the total land surface area of the world.
Answer:
32,87,263; 2.42

Question 3.
At the time of the 2011 census, the population of India was approximate ………………………….. crores.
Answer:
121

Question 4.
In 2011, the average life span of man was ………………………. years.
Answer:
63/64

Question 5.
During the 2001 to 2011 decade, the population in India increased by about ………………………. crores.
Answer:
18

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Human Resources

Question 6.
As per the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, the appropriate marriageable age for males is ……………….. years and that for females is ……………………. years.
Answer:
21; 18

Question 7.
About ……………………. % of the population of Gujarat resides in urban areas.
Answer:
38

Question 8.
Sex ratio is known as the number of women per …………………… men.
Answer:
thousand

Question 9.
In 2011, the literacy rate of Gujarat was ………………. %.
Answer:
79.31

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences :

Question 1.
Explain the meaning of ‘Population Census’.
Answer:
Collecting and cataloguing information about people living in a country or any particular region of the country is known as ‘Population Census’. It is done every 10 years under the regulation of the central government. In our country, the last census was carried out in the year 2011 (the 7th time).

Question 2.
Which problems are caused due to rising population?
Answer:
Rising population causes administrative problems, as well as problems like shortage of food, water, housing, environmental pollution, conservation, employment, traffic congestion, etc. Therefore, schemes, policies, etc. are made to deal with such problems.

Question 4.
In which regions do we find high population density?
Answer:
Population density is associated with social, economic and geographical conditions. It is high in the fertile alluvial plains of rivers, deltas, industrial areas, etc.

Question 5.
In which regions do we find low population density?
Answer:
Population density is low in deserts, mountainous and forest regions due to unfavourable conditions.

Question 6.
Why do quantitative changes happen in population?
Answer:
Reasons for quantitative changes :

  • Population growth and
  • Migration.

Quantitative changes happen mainly due to rate of population growth and migration of people. Moreover, proportionately less land area, condition of farmers, urbanization as well as social and economic reasons cause quantitative changes in population.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Human Resources

Question 7.
Which two languages have been given the status of official and global languages respectively in India?
Answer:
In India, Hindi and English have been given the status of official and global languages respectively.

Question 8.
What is meant by human health?
Answer:
The ‘health of a person can be defined as the physical, mental, emotional, social, economic and spiritual well-being of a person. The best level of health helps in fostering the process of national development.

Question 9.
Which programmes must reach the grass-root level as part of the National Population Policy?
Answer:
As part of the National Population Policy, various programmes like nutritious food, pre-and-postnatal care of mother and child, providing clean drinking water, school health programmes, safeguarding children’s rights, etc. must reach the grass-root level.

Answer the following questions in short:

Question 1.
Why was the rate of population growth less two centuries ago in India?
Answer:
For the answer refer to the second paragraph of the Sub-question number (2) given above.

Question 2.
Which are the main factors responsible for population explosion in India?
Answer:
The two main factors responsible for population explosion in India are high birth rate and the considerably low death rate in comparison. The standard of living has improved and so the average life span which was about 40-41 years in 1920 has increased to 63 – 64 years.

However, birth rate has not decreased noticeably. The factors responsible for increase in birth rate are: illiteracy, superstitions, orthodox thinking, social customs wherein a male child is considered important, child marriage, poverty, widow re-marriage, negative attitude towards the idea of a small family, etc.

Nutritious food is easily available, communicable diseases are under control due to advanced medical treatment and vaccination programmes. Pre-and-post-disaster management has improved and affected people are rehabilitated faster. So death rate has decreased whereas! population growth rate has increased.

Question 3.
Which factors affect population density?
Answer:
The average number of people living in per sq km of area is known as population density of that area. Population density is associated with social, economic and geographical conditions. It is high in the fertile alluvial plains of rivers, deltas, industrial areas, etc. Population density is low in deserts, mountainous and forest regions due to unfavourable conditions.

Density of Population is affected by various geographical factors like altitude, climate, weather, topography, types of crops, availability of water, minerals, energy sources, etc.. Educational facilities, health and transport facilities, employment opportunities, urbanization, etc. also affect population density.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Human Resources

Explain the terms given below:

Question 1.
Sex Ratio
Sex Ratio: Sex ratio can be defined as the number of females per 1000 males. Sex ratio has been: consistently reducing since 1951. According to the 2011 census, there were 940 females for every 1000 males in, India. The sex ratio of Gujarat is 918. Kerala has the highest sex ratio (1084) in India.

Name the following:
(The required names have been written as answers against each question.)

  • The five most highly populated districts of Gujarat: Ahmedabad, Surat, Vadodara, Rajkot and Banaskantha.
  • The five districts of Gujarat that have the highest density of population: Surat, Ahmedabad, Anand, Gandhinagar and Navsari.
  • The five most highly populated states of India: Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.
  • The five least populated union territories of India: Lakshadweep, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • Two states with a population density of more than 1000 per square kilometre: Bihar and West Bengal.
  • The state with the lowest population density: Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The state that has more women than men: Kerala
  • The state with the lowest sex ratio: Haryana
  • The main religions followed in India: Hindu, Islam, Christian, Sikh, Buddhism, Jainism, Parsi.

[Note: In the first table given on page no. 44 of the textbook, due to a printing error, the population of women in Banaskantha is given as 5,06,897 and total population is given as 21,16,045. It should actually be 15,06,897 and 31,16,045 respectively.]

Match the pairs correctly:

Section ‘A’ (In India) Section ‘B’ (State)
(1) The highest population (a) Kerala
(2) The lowest population (b) Uttar Pradesh
(3) The highest population density (c) Goa
(d) Bihar
(4) The highest literacy rate (e) Sikkim

Answer:
(1 – b),
(2-e),
(3-d),
(4-a).

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.