GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Following the Mahatma – Part I

Gujarat Board GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Following the Mahatma – Part I Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf.

Gujarat Board Textbook Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Following the Mahatma – Part I

GSEB Class 8 Social Science Following the Mahatma – Part I Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
Why did Gandhiji start Satyagrah in South Africa?
Answer:
Due to racial differences in South Africa, Indians enjoyed very few rights as compared to the whites. Gandhiji protested against the injustice, insults and demeaning behaviour of the British towards Indians residing in South Africa with truth and non-violence. He called it ‘Satyagraha.’

Question 2.
Which were the two main features of Satyagrah?
Answer:
Truth and non-violence – these were the two main features of Satyagraha.

Question 3.
Why the Rowlett Act was called the Black Acr by Gandhiji?
Answer:
The Rowlett Act authorized the government to exercise stricter control on press. The British also arrested people without warrants and sentenced them to indefinite jail sentences without trial. The accused were not allowed to know the reason for their arrest nor were they allowed to appeal or know the evidence used against them in court. Thus, this act was a complete violation of the fundamental rights and freedom of expression and speech. Gandhiji protested against this act and called it the ‘Black Act’.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Following the Mahatma - Part I

Question 4.
Why did Khilafat Movement start In India?
Answer:
After their victory in the First World War, the allied nations signed a treaty with Turkey that had been defeated in the war. According to the treaty the Turk Sultan who was the religious head (Khalifa) also would have this title cancelled. Indian Muslims started a movement to protest against this treaty. This protest came to be known as the ‘Khilafat Movement’. The main leaders of the Khilafat Movement were the Ali brothers – Maulana Shaukat Ali and Maulana Mohammed Ali.

Question 5.
Why did Gandhiji withdraw the Non-Cooperation movement?
Answer:
Gandhiji was always against violence of any kind. So when, in 1922, angry farmers of Chauri-chaura village of Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh revolted against the sudden attack of the police on a peaceful rally and set fire to a police station killing all the 22 policemen inside, Gandhiji withdrew the non-cooperation movement.

2. Write short notes on the following.

Question 1.
Kheda Satyagrah
Answer:
Kheda district in Gujarat experienced famine in 1917. All the crops were completely destroyed. In spite of this, the British Government started collecting tax instead of waiving it. Under Gandhiji’s leadership, the farmers performed Satyagraha in protest against the British Government. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel quit his law practice and joined Gandhiji in this Satyagraha. Gandhiji wrote to the tax collector demanding a waiver for the poor farmers and informing him that the rich farmers would pay taxes only if and when the demands of the waiver were met.

Finally, in 1918, the order to waive the tax was passed. This Satyagraha became famous as the ‘Kheda Satyagraha’. Though the Kheda Satyagraha enjoyed only moderate success, farmers of Gujarat, as well as India, became fearless, aware and courageous. The most important outcome was that the nation found a devoted and committed leader like Vallabhbhai Patel who had an extremely strong willpower.

Question 2.
Non-Cooperation movement
Answer:
In his book, ‘Hind Swaraj’ Gandhiji wrote that the British could establish their rule over India only because Indians cooperated with them. Therefore, to get rid of British supremacy, Gandhiji launched the non-cooperation movement in 1920 by returning the title of ‘Kaiser-e-Hind’.
The two aspects of the non-cooperation movement were :

  1. Boycott and
  2. Creativity.

(1) Boycott: Complete boycott of government jobs and honours, legislative meetings, government educational institutions, foreign clothes and other goods.
(2) Creativity: This included spinning of khadi, eradication of untouchability, communalism, alcohol consumption and encouraging Hindu-Muslim unity, along with propagation of Swadeshi goods and national education.

During the non-cooperation movement many national educational institutions like Gujarat Vidyapith (in Ahmedabad), Bihar Vidyapith, Kashi Vidyapith, Jamia- Milia Islamia (in Delhi), Tilak Vidyapith (in Pune), etc. were established.

Gandhiji was always against violence of any kind. So when, in 1922, angry farmers of Chauri-chaura village of Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh revolted against the sudden attack of the police on a peaceful rally and set fire to a police station killing all the 22 policemen inside, Gandhiji withdrew the non-cooperation movement.

Question 3.
Bardoli Satyagrah
Answer:
In 1928 the British government increased the taxes on land by 22 % in Bardoli village of Surat district. When the government did not attend to the people’s request to lower taxes, a Satyagraha was undertaken to protest against this untimely and unjust levy. Vallabhbhai Patel undertook the leadership of the Bardoli Satyagraha. He also got help from great leaders like Ravishankar Maharaj and Jugatram Dave for the Satyagraha. The success of the Bardoli Satyagraha made people confer the title of ‘Sardar’ on Vallabhbhai Patel.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Following the Mahatma - Part I

3. Match the items in column ‘A’ with those in column ‘B’.
A B
1. Champaran 1. U (tar Pradesh
2. Nataal 2. Punjab
3. Amritsar 3. Bihar
4. Chauri Chaura 4. Pakistan
5. Lahore 5. South Africa
Answer:
(1-3),
(2-5),
(3-2),
(4- 1),
(5 – 4)

Activities:

  • Collect pictures of the National Leaders mentioned in this chapter and stick them in your notebook.
  • Assume that you Eire a student of a government school in the year 1920. Make a poster appealing to youngsters to join the Non-cooperation Movement.
  • Prepare a news article to be published in one regional and one English newspaper on the day after the JallianwEila Baug massacre.

GSEB Class 8 Social Science Following the Mahatma – Part I Intext Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Discuss the similarities and dissimilarities between the Champaran and the Kheda Satyagraha.
Answer:
Similarities between the Champaran and the Kheda Satyagrahas :

  • Both were against injustice to farmers.
  • Gandhiji undertook the leadership of both the Satyagrahas.
  • Both the Satyagrahas proved successful.
  • Both attracted the attention of the whole country.

Differences between the Champaran and the Kheda Satyagrahas :

  • European landlords were exploiting farmers in Champaran and forcing them to grow and sell indigo. Whereas in Kheda, the farmers were being exploited by excessive land revenue collected by the British.
  • Gandhiji succeeded in Champaran by presenting the farmers’ problems to the British government while in Kheda he had to write to the British Commissioner for the Satyagraha to succeed.
  • Gandhiji fought the Champaran Satyagraha single-handedly while for the Kheda Satyagraha he had the support of leaders like the iron-willed Vallabhbhai Patel among others.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Following the Mahatma - Part I

GSEB Class 8 Social Science Following the Mahatma – Part I Additional Important Questions and Answers

Choose the correct alternative from those given below each question:

Question 1.
Why did Gandhiji go to South Africa?
A. For further studies
B. For practising law
C. For doing business
D. For seeing the world
Answer:
B. For practising law

Question 2.
When did Gandhiji return to India from South Africa?
A.In 1905
B.In 1908
C.In 1916
D.In 1915
Answer:
D.In 1915

Question 3.
Which ashram did Gandhiji establish first in Ahmedabad?
A. Pavnar Ashram
B. Satyagraha Ashram
C. Sabarmati Ashram
D. Paldi Ashram
Answer:
B. Satyagraha Ashram

Question 4.
Which Satyagraha did Gandhiji conduct in Bihar in 1917?
A. Dandi Satyagraha
B. Kheda Satyagraha
C. Champaran Satyagraha
D. Borsad Satyagraha
Answer:
C. Champaran Satyagraha

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Following the Mahatma - Part I

Question 5.
In which village of Champaran did Gandhiji stay and fight against the unjust system of Champaran?
A. Madhubani
B. Purniya
C. Motihari
D. Hajipur
Answer:
C. Motihari

Question 6.
Who undertook the leadership of the Kheda Satyagraha (1917-1918)?
A. Gandhiji
B. Mohanlal Pandya
C. Jhinabhai Desai
D. Vallabhbhai Patel
Answer:
A. Gandhiji

Question 7.
Who were Gandhiji’s supporters in the Kheda Satyagraha?
A. Vallabhbhai Patel
B. Jawaharlal Nehru
C. Kasturba Gandhi
D. Mohanlal Pandya
Answer:
A. Vallabhbhai Patel

Question 8.
Due to which Satyagraha did the country find a committed and dedicated leader like Vallabhbhai Patel?
A. Champaran Satyagraha
B. Bardoli Satyagraha
C. Borsad Satyagraha
D. Kheda Satyagraha
Answer:
D. Kheda Satyagraha

Question 9.
Which was India’s first revolt against the British government?
A. Jallianwala Satyagraha
B. Rowlett Act Satyagraha
C. Borsad Satyagraha
D. Bardoli Satyagraha
Answer:
B. Rowlett Act Satyagraha

Question 10.
The sultan of which country was the Khalifa (religious head) of Islam during the 1st World War?
A. Iraq
B. Afghanistan
C. Turkey
D. Iran
Answer:
C. Turkey

Question 11.
How did Gandhiji start the non-cooperation movement?
A. By taking up a fast
B. By setting foreign clothes on fire
C. By giving up the title of ‘Kaisar-e-Hind’
D. By giving up the designation of barrister
Answer:
C. By giving up the title of ‘Kaisar-e-Hind’

Question 12.
In which village of Uttar Pradesh did a violent incident take place during the non-cooperation movement?
A. At Sitapur
B. At Hamirpur
C. At Rampur
D. At Chauri-chaura
Answer:
D. At Chauri-chaura

Question 13.
Where is Jallianwala Baug located?
A. In Amritsar
B. In Hyderabad
C. In Delhi
D. In Kolkata
Answer:
A. In Amritsar

Question 14.
On which day did the Jallianwala Baug massacre take place?
A. On Baisakhi Full Moon Night
B. On Phaguni Full Moon Plight
C. On Guru Full Moon Night
D. On Kartik Full Moon Night
Answer:
A. On Baisakhi Full Moon Night.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Following the Mahatma - Part I

Question 15.
Who was responsible for the Jallianwala Baug massacre?
A. General William Wylie
B. General Neil
C. General Saunders
D. General Dyer
Answer:
D. General Dyer

Question 16.
When did the Simon Commission come to India?
A. In 1922
B. In 1927
C. In 1931
D. In 1924
Answer:
B. In 1927

Question 17.
All the Indian institutions boycotted the Simon Commission because ………………… .
A. it did not have a single English representative.
B. it did not have a single Muslim representative.
C. it did not have a single Indian representative.
D. it did not have a single woman representative.
Answer:
C. it did not have a single Indian representative.

Question 18.
In which year did the Bardoli Satyagraha take place?
A. In 1931
B. In 1928
C. In 1926
D. In 1920
Answer:
B. In 1928

Question 19.
Vallabhbhai Patel accepted the leadership of which Satyagraha?
A. Nagpur Jhanda
B. Bardoli
C. Champaran
D. Kheda
Answer:
B. Bardoli

Question 20.
After the success of which Satyagraha did Vallabhbhai Patel get the title of ‘Sardar’?
A. Bardoli
B. Borsad
C. Dandi
D. Kheda
Answer:
A. Bardoli

Question 21.
The British government increased the Bardoli District tax by what percentage?
A. 28%
B. 48%
C. 6%
D. 22 %
Answer:
D. 22 %

Question 22.
From the places marked on the map, for which Satyagraha was Vallabhbhai Patel honoured with the title of ‘Sardar’?
GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Following the Mahatma - Part I 1
A. Navsari
B. Bardoli
C. Ganadevi
D. Valsad
Answer:
B. Bardoli

Question 23.
Who prepared the ‘Nehru Report’?
A. Miss Vijayalaxmi Nehru
B. Govind Vallabh Pant
C. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
D. Pandit Motilal Nehru
Answer:
D. Pandit Motilal Nehru

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Following the Mahatma - Part I

Question 24.
Who did not accept the Nehru Report due to which the British also rejected it?
A. The Muslim League
B. The Congress Convention
C. Punjab Unionists
D. The Justice party of Madras region
Answer:
A. The Muslim League

Question 25.
On the banks of which river in Lahore was the demand for ‘Complete Freedom’ made?
A. Beas
B. Sutlej
C. Ravi
D. Jhelum
Answer:
C. Ravi

Question 26.
When did the Congress Convention take the pledge of freedom?
A. On December 31, 1929
B. On January 26, 1929
C. On December 30, 1932
D. On January 26, 1930
Answer:
D. On January 26, 1930

Question 27.
On which day was the Constitution of free India implemented?
A. On 2nd January 1950
B. On 15th August 1947
C. On 26th January 1950
D. On 26th January 1930
Answer:
C. On 26th January 1950

Question 28.
Which historic event does the place marked on the map given below remind us of?
GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Following the Mahatma - Part I 2
A. Dandikooch
B. Battle of Plassey
C. Battle of Buxar
D. Jallianwala Baug Massacre
Answer:
D. Jallianwala Baug Massacre

Fill in the blanks with proper words or numbers in the following statements:

Question 1.
Gandhiji was a ……………… .
Answer:
Barrister

Question 2.
Gandhiji went to ……………………….. to practice law.
Answer:
South Africa

Question 3.
‘……………………………..’ means fighting against injustice with truth and non-violence.
Answer:
Satyagraha

Question 4.
Gandhiji was successful in the fight against the ……………………. system in South Africa.
Answer:
Racial

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Following the Mahatma - Part I

Question 5.
Gandhiji travelled all over India on the advice of ………………… .
Answer:
Gopalkrishna Gokhale

Question 6.
Gandhiji established the ‘Satyagraha’ Ashram at ………………… in Ahmedabad on 25th May, 1915.
Answer:
Kochrab

Question 7.
Gandhiji shifted the Satyagraha Ashram at Kochrab to the banks of the ………………… river.
Answer:
Sabarmati

Question 8.
The Champaran region of Bihar was famous for its ……………….. .
Answer:
Mango plantations

Question 9.
European landlords would force the farmers to produce ………………………….. on 3 /20th portion of their land.
Answer:
Indigo

Question 10.
Gandhiji decided to look into the question of the farmers of Champaran on the insistence of …………………. .
Answer:
Raj Kumar Shukla

Question 11.
Gandhiji stayed at the ………………………. village at Champaran and conducted the Champaran Satyagraha.
Answer:
Motihari

Question 12.
In 1917 the crops had failed in Kheda district due to ………………….. .
Answer:
famine

Question 13.
The farmers conducted the Kheda Satyagraha against the British government under the leadership of ……………….. .
Answer:
Gandhiji

Question 14.
On Gandhiji’s advice ……………………. gave up his law practice and joined the Kheda Satyagraha.
Answer:
Vallabhbhai Patel

Question 15.
The Kheda Satyagraha proved of great importance from the viewpoint of ………………….. .
Answer:
principles

Question 16.
The ………………………… were victorious in the First World War.
Answer:
England (allied nations).

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Following the Mahatma - Part I

Question 17.
Gandhiji called the Rowlett Act as a ‘ ……………………………… ’.
Answer:
Black Act

Question 18.
Jallianwala Baug is situated in ………………… .
Answer:
Amritsar

Question 19.
During the ……………………….. Satyagraha people tried to strengthen Hindu-Muslim unity.
Answer:
Rowlett Act

Question 20.
During the First World War the sultan of ………………….. was the head of Islam.
Answer:
Turkey

Question 21.
Mahatma Gandhi started the ………………………. movement by giving up the title of ‘Kaisar-e-Hind’.
Answer:
Non-cooperation

Question 22.
Due to the violent incident that took place in the village of ……………………. Gandhiji withdrew the
non-cooperation movement.
Answer:
Chauri-chaura

Question 23.
There wasn’t a single Indian in the …………………….. Commission.
Answer:
Simon

Question 24.
Vallabhbhai Patel accepted the leadership of the ……………………….. Satyagraha.
Answer:
Bardoli

Question 25.
After the success of Bardoli Satyagraha, Vallabhbhai Patel was honoured with the title of ………………. .
Answer:
Sardar

Question 26.
…………………. was the chairman of the committee formed to draft the Constitution of India.
Answer:
Pandit Motilal Nehru

Question 27.
The British government rejected the ………………………because the Muslim League did not accept it.
Answer:
Nehru Report

Question 28.
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was the chairman of the convention organised at ……………….. by the Congress Committee in 1929.
Answer:
Lahore

Question 29.
In 1929, the Congress passed a resolution of ‘ ………………….. ’ on the banks of River Ravi in
Lahore.
Answer:
Complete Freedom

Question 30.
The Congress Committee took the oath of freedom on 26th January, …………………. .
Answer:
1930

State whether the following statements are true or false:

Question 1.
Gandhiji established the ‘Satyagraha’ Ashram at Kochrab on 25th May 1920.
Answer:
False

Question 2.
The Champaran region of Bihar was famous for its mango plantations.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
The British government announced the Rowlett Act after the 2nd World War.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
Gandhiji started the Freedom Movement on the thoughts of non-cooperation.
Answer:
False

Question 5.
After ending the non-cooperation movement Gandhiji started creative work in rural areas.
Answer:
True

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Following the Mahatma - Part I

Question 6.
The Gujarat Vidyapith was established in Ahmedabad during the revolution against to the Simon Commission.
Answer:
False

Question 7.
Mahatma Gandhi was against a violent revolution.
Answer:
True

Question 8.
The Constitution of free India was implemented on 15th August 1947.
Answer:
False

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences:

Question 1.
What is the name of the Father of our Nation?
Answer:
The name of the Father of our Nation is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.

Question 2.
Why did people respect Gandhiji even at an international level?
Answer:
Gandhiji had successfully carried out a non¬violent Satyagraha against racial discrimination in South Africa. Therefore, people respected Gandhiji even at an international level.

Question 3.
What did Gandhiji do on the advice of Gopalkrishna Gokhale?
Answer:
On the advice of Gopalkrishna Gokhale, Gandhiji toured the whole of India and tried to understand the needs, the plight and the conditions of the people.

Question 4.
Where and when did Gandhiji establish an ashram in Ahmedabad?
Answer:
Gandhiji established his ‘Satyagraha Ashram’ at Kochrab, Ahmedabad on 25th May 1915. After two years Gandhiji shifted this Satyagraha Ashram to the banks of the Sabarmati.

Question 5.
Where is Champaran located? Why was it famous?
Answer:
Champaran is located at the foot of the Himalayas in Bihar near Nepal. It was famous for its mango plantations.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Following the Mahatma - Part I

Question 6.
How were European landlords exploiting the farmers at Champaran?
Answer:
European landlords forced the farmers to produce indigo on 3/20th portion of their land in Champaran. They would then exploit the farmers further by making them sell the indigo produce at very low rates.

Question 7.
How did the Champaran Satyagraha become a success?
Answer:
Gandhiji decided to tackle the issue on the request of Rajkumar Shukla. He stayed at Motihari village in Champaran and talked about the problems of these farmers to the British rulers. The British promised to implement Gandhiji’s suggestions. This is how the Champaran Satyagraha became a success.

Question 8.
What was the benefit of the success of the Kheda Satyagraha?
Answer:
Though the Kheda Satyagraha enjoyed only moderate success, farmers of Gujarat, as well as India, became fearless, aware and courageous. The most important outcome was that the nation found a devoted and committed leader like Vallabhbhai Patel who had an extremely strong willpower.

Question 9.
What was the provision of the Rowlett Act?
Answer:
The Rowlett Act authorized the government to exercise stricter control on press. The British also arrested people without warrants and sentenced them to indefinite jail sentences without trial. The accused were not allowed to know the reason for their arrest nor were they allowed to appeal or know the evidence used against them in court.

Question 10.
Why and when was a meeting held in Jallianwala Baug?
Answer:
A meeting was organized on 13th April 1919 (on the day of Baisakhi, which was a Full Moon Night) at Jallianwala Baug in Amritsar, to protest against the Rowlett Act and pay tribute to the martyrs who had been victims of British exploitation and also to protest against the arrest of popular leaders Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Kichlu under the Rowlett Act.

Question 11.
Who were the main leaders of the Khilafat Movement?
Answer:
The main leaders of the Khilafat Movement were the Ali brothers – Maulana Shaukat Ali and Maulana Mohammed Ali.

Question 12.
Which national educational institutions were set up during the non-cooperative movement to facilitate education?
Answer:
During the non-cooperation movement many national educational institutions like Gujarat Vidyapith (in Ahmedabad), Bihar Vidyapith, Kashi Vidyapith, Jamia- Milia Islamia (in Delhi), Tilak Vidyapith (in Pune), etc. were established.

Question 13.
Why did all the political institutions of India boycott the Simon Commission?
Answer:
In the seven-member Simon Commission, all the members were British. There wasn’t a single Indian representative. Therefore, all the political institutions of India boycotted the Simon Commission.

Question 14.
What was the main reason for the Bardoli Satyagraha?
Answer:
In 1928 the British government increased the taxes on land by 22 % in Bardoli village of Surat district. When the government did not attend to the people’s request to lower taxes, a Satyagraha was undertaken to protest against this untimely and unjust levy.

GSEB Solutions Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Following the Mahatma - Part I

Question 15.
Why did the British government not accept the ‘Nehru Report’?
Answer:
The Muslim League did not accept the ‘Nehru Report’ so the British Government rejected it.

Question 16.
When, where and under whose chairmanship did the congress pass the resolution of ‘Complete Freedom’?
Answer:
On December 31, 1929, at midnight, the Congress passed a resolution of ‘Complete Freedom’ on the banks of River Ravi in Lahore under the chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru.

Write short notes on the following:

Question 1.
Jallianwala Baug Massacre
Answer:
A meeting was organized on 13th April 1919 (on the day of Baisakhi, which was a Pull Moon Night) at Jallianwala Baug in Amritsar, to protest against the Rowlett Act and pay tribute to the martyrs who had been victims of British exploitation and also to protest against the arrest of popular leaders Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Kichlu under the Rowlett Act. About 10,000 people had gathered for this meeting. Without any prior notice, General Dyer ordered his soldiers to open fire on the unarmed people gathered there.

The firing stopped only when the soldiers ran out of ammunition. Though Government records claim that 379 people died and 1200 were injured during the shootout the actual number of casualties was quite high. After this horrifying incident, Gandhiji completely lost faith in the British sense of justice and fairness.

Match the pairs correctly:

Question 1.
Years and events have been given in Section A and Section B respectively. Match the events given in Section B with the year in which they took place given in Section A:

Section ‘A’ (Year) Section ‘B’ (Events)
(1) 1917 (1) Non-cooperation movement
(2) 1919 (2) Bardoli Satyagraha
(3) 1920 (3) Jallianwala Baug Massacre
(4) 1927 (4) Champaran Satyagraha
(5) 1928 (5) Resolution of Complete Freedom
(6) Simon Commission

Answer:
(1-4),
(2-3),
(3-1),
(4-6),
(5-2).

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.