Gujarat Board GSEB Textbook Solutions Class 9 Social Science Chapter 10 Organs of Government Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions, Notes Pdf.
Organs of Government Class 9 GSEB Solutions Social Science Chapter 10
Gujarat Board Class 9 Social Science Organs of Government Textbook Questions and Answers
1. Answer the following questions:
Organs Of Government Class 9 Question 1.
What is the principle of division of power?
The Principle of division of power:
Go through these Social Science Chapter 10 Organs of Government GSEB Class 9 Notes to score well in your exam.
- The government carries out various functions of the state.
- Although these are different from one another, they are interrelated at many areas.
- The functions of all the three organs of the government namely Legislative, Executive and Judiciary are different and all of these require a certain expertise.
- So, all the three organs of the government are run by different people and each organ carries out its own functions.
- If only one organ of the government would have all the powers then it, it would lead to supremacy and misuse of power. This would also affect national integrity and well-being.
- To avoid these problems, the government had divided its powers in three parts i.e., among its three organs.
- By dividing the powers its misuse is avoided.
- Moreover, division of power enables an efficient work system.
- For example, the Legislative has the power to formulate laws but some powers are also given to the Executive and the Judiciary to see that the Legislative does not misuse its powers to formulate laws that could prove harmful for the nation.
- Similarly, the Executive is controlled by giving powers to the Legislative and the Judiciary. The Judicial system is controlled by giving power to the Legislative and the Executive.
- Thus, we can say that the powers are distributed in such a way that no organ of the government can claim full authority overworks, procedures or laws of India.
Organs Of Government Class 9 Solutions Question 2.
What is eligibility of a member of Parliament?
Eligibility for a candidate to become a member of the Lok Sabha:
- Must be a citizen of India having minimum age of 25 years.
- Should not be mentally unstable, bankrupt or criminal.
- Should not be a government employee.
Eligibility for a candidate to become a member of the Rajya Sabha:
- Must be a citizen of India.
- Should be 30 years of age or more.
- Must not be mentally unstable, bankrupt or criminal.
- Should not be a government employee or holding a position or office that provide him profit.
GSEB Solutions Class 9 Social Science Chapter 10 Question 3.
What is the Quorum for the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha?
The minimum number of members of the Parliament that must be present at any of its meeting so that the decision taken in the proceeding can be considered valid is called quorum.
Quorum of the Lok Sabha:
- The minimum quorum should be 1/10th.
- It means in order to consider decision of the Lok Sabha as valid, minimum 55 out of 552 members should be present. Quorum of the Rajya Sabha:
- The minimum quorum should be 1/10th.
- It means is order to consider decision of the Rajya Sabha as valid, minimum 25 out of 250 members should be present.
Organs Of The Government Class 9 Question 4.
How are the members of the Rajya Sabha elected?
There are 250 members in the Rajya Sabha [present Rajya Sabha has 245 members (233+12)].
- The members of the Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected by the members of the Legislative Assemblies (Vidhan Sabha) of the States and the Union Territories through a method of equivalent representation.
- In all 238 members of the Rajya Sabha are elected.
- Rest 12 members are nominated by the President of India.
- These nominated members are distinguished or famous persons belonging to the field of literature, science, arts, culture, sports and social service.
- A person can become member of only one House at a time.
Organ Of Government Frames The Laws Question 5.
How is the Speaker the protector of the dignity of the House?
- The main function of the Speaker is to observe the proceedings of the Lok Sabha.
- He commands and presides over the meeting/ sessions of the Lok Sabha and maintains and controls their functioning.
- The Speaker also sees that the members maintain discipline or not, and maintains order and dignity of the House. The decision of the Speaker with respect to these function is full and final.
- Hence, on the basis of the duties and responsibilities of the Speaker, it can be said that he is protector of the dignity of the House.
Organs Of The Government Class 9 Question 6.
Describe the emergency powers of the President.
(a) National Emergency:
If the President is satisfied that the security of India or any part of its territory is threatened by a war or external aggression or armed rebellion, he can declare an Emergency for the whole of India or any of its parts. The declaration of Emergency cannot be challenged in court.
(b) Constitutional Emergency:
- Based on report of the Governor, the President can declare constitutional emergency in that particular state.
- He can establish ‘Presidential Rule’ by dissolving the state cabinet ministry.
(c) Financial Emergency
- In case of this Emergency, the President can reduce salaries of all government officials, including judges of the Supreme Court and the High Court.
- Thus, the President has vast executive and administrative powers and though all the administration can be considered in the hands of the President only and done in his name only.
- Yet in reality, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers enjoy these powers.
What is the process of Impeachment?
- A special procedure through which the President can be removed from his post before his term expires is known as impeachment.
- A President can be impeachment for violation of the Constitution.
- The process of removal of the President may start in any of the two Houses of the Parliament.
- The House starts the process by putting the charges against the President.
- A resolution to impeach the President has to be passed by a 2/3rd majority of the total members of the House.
- The resolution is then sent to the other House for investigating the charges being put.
- If the second House also approves the charges with 2/3rd majority, the President is removed from office.
- During the process of impeachment, the President has the right to defend himself.
Mention the powers of the Parliament.
- The Parliament has two Houses – the Lok Sabha (the Lower House of the Parliament) and the Rajya Sabha (the upper House of the Parliament).
- The Parliament controls, guides and informs the government.
- he Question Hour with which the Parliament session begins is an important mechanism through which MPs (Members of Parliament) can elicit information about the working of the government. This is a very important way through which the Parliament controls the executive.
- In all matters dealing with finance, the Parliament’s approval is crucial for the government.
- The Parliament makes new laws for the entire country, and also amends or repeals them, if necessary.
- It passes the budget of the Union Government. Also, it is empowered to vote a reduction in the budget or reject it altogether.
- The Parliament can remove the President of India through impeachment.
- It can also impeach the judges of the Supreme Court and the High Court, in case they are found violating the Constitution or misusing their status.
State the institutes of Local Self-Governance.
The Rural Institutions of Local Self-Governance are:
- Gram Panchayat i.e. Village Panchayat (at Village level)
- Panchayat Samiti i.e. Taluka Panchayat (at Taluka level)
- Zilla Parishad i.e. District Panchayat (at District level)
The Urban Institutions of Local Self-Governance are:
- Municipality (Nagarpalika)
- (Municipal Corporation) Mahanagarpalika
- Megacity – Mahanagar Nigam.
State the vices of bureaucracy.
- There are two organs of the government- Political Executive and Administrative Executive.
- The Political Executive frames various policies in different fields. The detailed and efficient implementation of these policies is done by the Administrative Executive.
- Expert and professionally efficient and experienced public servants in various fields are the backbones of the government. These public servants are known as bureaucrats.
- The power and influence of the government is becoming more centred in the bureaucracy.
- Nepotism, corruption, dishonesty, inefficiency, misconduct, escapism are the evils of bureaucracy.
2. Explain giving reasons for the following statements.
Indian Parliament is bicameral.
- A bicameral legislature divides the legislators in two separate houses or assemblies.
- In India, we have two Houses at centre level. The Lower House is known as the Lok Sabha whereas the Upper House is known as the Rajya Sabha.
- Similarly, at state level the legislative has two Houses.
- The Lower House of the state is called the Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) whereas the Upper House is called the Vidhan Parishad (Legislative Council).
- Since, India’s legislature is divided in two Houses at both central and state level, it is said that Indian Parliament is bicameral.
Rajya Sabha is a permanent house.
- The Rajya Sabha is the Upper House of the Parliament whose members belong to various fields such as culture, sports, science, etc.
- These members are not elected by people directly. So, they are not directly responsible to people.
- Unlike the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha cannot be dissolved.
- Its members are selected for a term of six years and 1/3rd of its members retire every second years.
- The Rajya Sabha always remains in motion and is independent for general election of the country.
- Owing to all these reasons it is said that Rajya Sabha is a permanent house and is not subject to dissolution.
Parliament in India is not supreme, but the Constitution is considered supreme.
- One of the major tasks of the Parliament is to make the laws for the country.
- The proposals for the laws are made in the Parliament, discussed and read thoroughly and it deemed properly the laws are drafted and implemented.
- A country runs as per the laws existing in the country. So, the Parliament has vast powers.
- However, the Parliament cannot frame laws that violate the guidelines of the Constitution.
- In case if the Parliament has drafted and passed a law, the Constitution can overrule and reject it.
- Thus, in spite of the Parliament being the supreme body in the country for making laws, but the Constitution is considered supreme.
Independent and impartial judiciary is the foundation of democracy.
- Democracy works on the principle of by the people, for the people, and of the people.
- India is a democratic country and truly follows this principle.
- The fully abide by this principle, India gave full authority to judiciary to give justice to people as per the judicial laws and the Constitution.
- Neither the legislative nor executive can interfere in the matters of the judiciary. This helps the judiciary to give justice to the people without pressure of legislative and executive or influence of people associated with these organs. Doing so, one can truly enjoy the fruits of democracy.
- Hence, it is said that independent and impartial judiciary is the foundation of democracy.
The Institutes of Local Self-Governance are the training schools and laboratory of constitutional improvement in a democracy.
Advantages of Local Self-Rural Governance:
- The Institutes of Local Self-Governance provide training to people on way to conduct election, voting, duties, responsibilities, administration and ruling and opposing parties.
- Under this system, the region gets an opportunity of self-development.
- Since, the development and welfare takes place from grass-root level, it can be extended to upper levels of governance. This helps in filling the gap and improving the system of entire nation.
- As a result, institutes of Local Self-Governance are known as the training schools and laboratories of constitutional improvement in democracy.
The State Legislative Assembly is the representative of people’s desires.
- The Legislative Assembly frames law and policies which are then implemented in the state.
- The policies of a state are the base for the welfare of the people and state.
- The frame the policies the political executives take the help of administrative executive.
- The administrative executives consists of expert and professionally efficient and experienced public servants in the field of foreign relations, defence, security forces, international trade and commerce, nuclear energy, production, distribution, banking, insurance, foreign exchange, etc.
- These administrative executives are in constant touch with the people of the state.
- They understand the culture, the trend, the socio-economic and religious patterns of the state.
- Based on the deep understanding and knowledge of the administrative executive and association with the political executive, the Legislative Assembly forms policies that fulfils the desire of the people and welfares them.
- Thus, the State Legislative Assembly is the representative of the people’s desires.
Governor plays a key role between the Centre and the State.
- The Governor is the constitutional and formal head of the state.
- The President of India appoints the Governor with an aim that the Governor will work for the welfare and progress of the nation in the best possible way.
- Then the Governor appoints the Chief Minister of the state as well as the Council of Ministers.
- He also appoints the Advocate General, the Chairman, the members of the State Public- Service Commission.
- All of them appointed people work for the welfare of the state.
- Although these people work for the state, they are helping to build a strong and progressive nation.
- Selection of correct and eligible cabinet leads the nation towards prosperity.
- Thus, the Governor forms an important part of the chain between the Centre and the State and hence plays a key role between them.
Lok Sabha is the key public organisation of the nation.
- The Lok Sabha is the Lower House of the Parliament.
- It represents the people of India as a whole.
- The representatives of states in the Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people from various states.
- People elect them to fulfil their demands from the nation.
- The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Lower House of the Parliament. Thus, if government does something which is not in the welfare of the people then it has to give answer and reason for its works.
- So, the Lok Sabha exercises control over the executive. This assures that executive takes care of people who have elected them.
- If the executive does not function properly, the Lok Sabha on behalf of people can warn it and ask it to resolve its mistake.
- Hence, it is rightly said that the Lok Sabha is the key public organization of the nation.
An amicable relation between the political executive and the administrative executive is a pre-requisite for the smooth governance of the nation.
- The political executive frames various policies in different fields whereas the administrative executive implements them.
- The policies of a state may be quite useful for the welfare of the people and state. But, if they are not implemented effectively, then they would be useless.
- Based on their qualification and direct contact with the public, the administrative executive advises and guides the political executives in the matters of policy formation and amendment.
- It provides necessary information and fact and figures to the political executive so that they can frame better policies. However, the political executive is not bound to follow its advice.
- The administrative system (or executive) provide necessary back up to the political executive in the effective implementation of these policies.
- Their expertise, high-level knowledge, administrative insight, broad experience, prediction and administrative efficiency help them to carry out the state administrative effectively.
- With respect to the organs of the government, the political executive acts as the brain behind the welfare of the people whereas the administrative executive acts as the limbs.
- Hence, an amicable relation between the political executive and the administrative executive is a pre-requisite for the smooth governance of the nation.
Efficient and bold public servants are the backbone of the government.
- The political executives frame various policies in different fields whereas the administrative executives implement them.
- The policies of a state may be quite useful for the welfare of the people and state. But, if they are not implemented effectively then they would be useless.
- Based on the qualification and direct contact with the public, the administrative executives who work as public servants advise and guide the political executives in the matters of policy formation and amendment.
- These public servants provides necessary backup to the political executive in the effective implementation of these policies.
- The public servants includes expert and professionally efficient and experienced people in the field of foreign relations, defence, security forces, international trade and commerce, nuclear energy, production, distribution, banking insurance, foreign exchange, etc.
- Their expertise, high-level knowledge, administrative insight, broad experience, prediction and administrative efficiency help them to carry out the state administration effectively.
- These public servants if boldly present the need of people and reject the proposals of the political executives that are not in favour of the people, can do wonders for the state.
- Owing to all these reasons it is said that efficient and bold public servants from the backbone of the government.
3. Write short notes on:
Position of the Governor and his functions.
- Just like the President, the Governor is the constitutional and formal head of the state.
- The position of the Governor in a state is similar to that of the President at the centre.
- The Governor may belong to any political party, but after assuming his post he has to perform his duties firmly and impartially.
- All executive powers of the state government lie with him.
- Normally, the Governor of a state is ex-office Chancellor of all the universities of the state.
- He summons and prorogues the sessions of the State Legislature.
- He can dissolve the state assembly before the expiry of its term.
- He can also issue ordinances.
- A Bill passed by the State Legislature can become a law only after the Governor approves it.
- Though, the Governor has vast power and authority, his powers are actually exercised by the Chief Minister and his Council. However, the Governor can exercise certain powers independently.
Executive powers of the State Legislative Assembly.
- The most important function of the Legislative Assembly is to act as the highest law-making organ of the state.
- In uni-cameral State Legislature, all Bills on subjects in the state list initiated and passed by this House before sending to the Governor for his assent.
- In bi-cameral State Legislatures, the Money Bills can be introduced only in Legislative Assembly.
- The Chief Minister and his Council of Ministers are collectively responsible for their acts to the Legislative Assembly.
- The Ministers, including the Chief Minister, remain in power only as long as they enjoy the confidence of the majority of the members of the Legislative Assembly.
- The Assembly alone considers the reports of the Public Service Commission of the state.
Position and the executive powers of the Prime Minister.
Position of the Prime Minister:
- The Prime Minister is the real head of the Central Government.
- He is also the Chairman of NITI Aayog.
- He is the member of any one house of the Parliament.
- The Prime Minister selects the ministers of his choice who can assist him in his work. This group of ministers is called Council of Ministers.
- The President appoints these council of Ministers as per the advice of the Prime Minister.
- He distributes the portfolios to these ministers i.e. which minister will supervise which work of the country.
- The Prime Minister has got the power to decide which minister to select, remove or allow to continue in the Cabinet.
- He presides over the meeting of the Cabinet and also supervises the functioning of various departments of the Cabinet.
- The Prime Minister also takes decisions on crucial matters brought to him by the Cabinet.
The Legislative and administrative powers of the President.
- He summons the sessions of both the Houses of the Parliament.
- He can dissolve the Lok Sabha.
- A Bill that Parliament has passed, can become law only after the President’s signature.
- The President can also return the Ordinary Bill to the Parliament for reconsideration.
- He permits the annual budget to be laid in the Lok Sabha.
- The President appoints the leader of the party who has gained majority in the general election as the Prime Minister.
- Further, as per the advice of the Prime Minister, he appoints the other ministers in the Cabinet of the Prime Minister.
- The President cannot dissolve the Cabinet as long as the Cabinet enjoys the support of the majority of Lok Sabha members.
- He administers the oath of secrecy and distributes the portfolios to all the ministers.
- The President is the head of the defence forces of the country.
- The President has the power to declare war, cease the war or conclude treaties with other countries.
- He appoints the judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts, Governors of the State, Attorney General, Comptroller and Auditor General.
- He appoints the head of the defence forces, chairman of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) and ambassadors to various nations.
How does a Bill become an Act? Explain procedure.
- The drafted proposal to create a desired law is called a Bill.
- A Bill can be proposed in any House of the Parliament.
- The Parliament does the important work amending the old laws, framing new laws and nullifying obsolete laws.
- There are a very large number of Bills proposed under various categories in the Parliament. The three important types of Bill are:
- Ordinary Bill,
- Money and Financial Bill and
- Constitution Amendment Bill.
- Any of these Bill needs to pass through various stages to become an Act of Law.
- In case of disputes between the two House will respect to the Bill, the President calls a Joint Session of both the Houses to discuss and sort out the matter.
- The Speaker works as the Chairman of the Joint Session.
- The Bill can then be passed by majority.
- When the majority of the members of both the Houses pass the, proposed Bill, then it becomes an Act (Law) after the assent of the President.
Constitution provisions regarding the Money Bill.
- A bill that contains financial matters such as laying or lifting taxes, budget, etc. is called a Money Bill.
- A Money Bill can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha.
- It is the Speaker of Lok Sabha who decides if the Bill introduced is a Money Bill or not.
- The budget of the centre is presented around last week of February in the Lok Sabha by the Finance Minister.
The Money Bill passes through the following process:
- The Money Bill approved in the Lok Sabha is first sent to the Rajya Sabha for recommendations.
- The Rajya Sabha needs to review it and send it to the Lok Sabha with necessary recommendations within 14 days.
- If the Rajya Sabha does not send the Money Bill back to the Lok Sabha within 14 days, then Bill is considered to have been passed by the Rajya Sabha.
- The Lok Sabha can either accept or reject all or a few recommendations of the Rajya Sabha.
- If the Lok Sabha accepts the recommendations of the Rajya Sabha. the Bill is considered to have been passed by both the Houses of the Parliament.
- Hence, in the matter of the Money Bill the Rajya Sabha has limited powers.
- When the Money Bill is passed by both the Houses of the Parliament, it is sent to the President for his assent and President has to sign the Money Bill.
The usefulness and limitations of the Rajya Sabha.
Usefulness of the Rajya Sabha:
- It is a permanent House and cannot be dissolved.
- As compared to the Lok Sabha, the members of the Rajya Sabha are generally older, more experienced and mature.
- The members of Rajya Sabha can be appointed in the cabinet ministry.
- In the absence of the Rajya Sabha, the Lok Sabha may become authoritative and monopolistic.
Limitations of the Rajya Sabha:
- Many things done by the Lok Sabha are repeated in the Rajya Sabha. This is unnecessary and the process is expensive as well as time-consuming.
- Since, the Rajya Sabha cannot be dissolved it shadows those members which do not work properly.
Choose the correct option.
What is the decided age for the member of the Legislative Assembly?
A. 25 years
B. 30 years
C. 35 years
D. 18 years
A. 25 years
How many members are there in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha?
A. 545, 245
B. 455, 350
A. 545, 245
Which Indian State does not have Two House of the Legislative?
B. Andhra Pradesh
C. Tamil Nadu
D. Uttar Pradesh
C. Tamil Nadu
Who appoints the judges of the Supreme Court?
A. Prime Minister
D. Vice President
What is the time period of the members of the Lok Sabha?
A. 4 years
B. 6 years
C. 2 years
D. 5 years
D. 5 years
In which House does the President appoint two Anglo-Indian members?
A. Rajya Sabha
B. Lok Sabha
C. Goa Legislative Assembly
D. Planning Commission
B. Lok Sabha
Who administers the oath of secrecy to the Prime minister?
A. Vice President
C. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
D. Speaker of the Lok Sabha
Match the pairs:
1. District Sevasadan
2. Municipal Corporation
3. District Panchayat
A. 1-A, 2-C, 3-D
B. 1-C, 2-D, 3-B
C. 1-B, 2-C, 3-D
D. 1-C, 2-A, 3-B
B. 1-C, 2-D, 3-B
How many members are nominated by the President in the Rajya Sabha?
Who presents the budget in the Parliament?
A. Prime Minister
B. Home Minister
C. Finance Minister
D. Member of the Parliament
C. Finance Minister
Gujarat Board Class 9 Social Science Organs of Government Additional Important Questions and Answers
Which qualification are required to become the candidate of India’s President?
To become the President of India, the candidate:
- should be a citizen of India with age 35 years of more.
- should not be a salaries employee of the government or hold any office of profit.
- should not be a member of any of the House of the Parliament or State Legislative Assembly.
When can the President Rule be imposed in any state?
Due to constitutional emergency, the President can establish ‘President Rule’ by dissolving state cabinet ministry, such a situation is called President Rule.
Describe the formation of the Lok Sabha.
The Lok Sabha is the Lower House of the Parliament.
- It is the House of people.
- Its members are directly elected by the people.
- The maximum strength of the Lok Sabha allotted by the constitution of India is 552.
- Presently, the House has 545 members out of which 543 are directly elected and 2 members of the Anglo-Indian Community are nominated by the President of India.
- These seats are distributed among the States on the basis of population.
- There is a provision of the seats of SCs and STs as per their population proportion.
- Normal term of the Lok Sabha is of five years. It can dissolved earlier by the President. The Parliament can extend its term by one year during the time of emergency.
- The members of the Lok Sabha elect Speaker and Deputy Speaker among themselves.
Give brief idea about the structure of Legislature.
Legislature (or Legislative body):
The branch or organ of the government which creates and passes all the laws in the country is known as Legislature or Legislative body.
Structure of Legislature: Based on the number of houses, the legislature of a country can be of following two types:
- Uni-cameral Legislature: When the legislative body is formed of only one house, it is called One House Legislature or Uni-cameral Legislature.
- Bi-cameral Legislature: When the legislative is formed of two houses, it is called two Houses i.e. Legislative or Bi-Cameral Legislature.
Give a brief idea about the structure of Legislature i.e., Legislative body in India.
- India is a democratic republic country and is run by the laws and system established by the Parliament.
- The Parliament of India is the topmost organisation i.e., topmost legislative body for framing and passing laws in India.
- The President of India, the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha are collectively known as the Indian Parliament.
Composition of the Parliament i.e, Legislature at Central (Union) Level:
The legislature of India at central level is a bi-cameral legislature. This means that the Parliament which frames laws for India at central level has two Houses.
These two Houses of Parliament called: the Upper House (Rajya Sabha or Council of States) and the Lower House (Lok Sabha or House of People)
- The members of Parliament are called MPs i. e., Members of the Parliament.
- The Union Legislature consists the President, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
Composition of Legislature at state level:
- The legislature of India at state level is uni-cameral in most states and bi-cameral in a few states.
- The two houses at state level are called: The Upper House (Vidhan Parishad or Legislative Council) and The Lower House (Vidhan Sabha or Legislative Assembly)
- The members of Legislative Assembly are called MLA i.e., Member of Legislative Assembly.
- Since majority of the states in India have unicameral legislature, they have only one house for framing laws. This house is the Lower House i.e. Vidhan Sabha or Legislative Assembly.
- States like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra; Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telegana have bi-cameral legislature and so have two Houses for framing laws.
Give an idea about Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad), its term, selection of its members and their candidature.
Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad)
- Legislative Council is the Legislature at state level.
- It is also called the Upper House or Vidhan Parishad.
- Each state has to decide whether it wants to have a Legislative Council or not.
- States like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Jammu and Kashmir and Karnataka have Legislative Councils.
Term of Legislative Council:
- The Legislative Council is a permanent House i.e., it does not get dissolved.
- Like the Rajya Sabha each of its members gets elected for a term of 6 years.
- Its 1/3rd members retire in every 2 years.
Eligibility for a candidate to become a member of Legislative Council:
- The candidate must be a citizen of India having minimum age 30 years.
- He should not be mentally unstable, bankrupt or criminal.
- Its members are elected from among the institutions of Local-Self Governance, registered graduates, teachers of secondary and higher secondary.
Differentiate between Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council.
- Legislative Assembly is also called the Lower House or Vidhan Sabha.
- Its term is of 5 years after which it gets dissolved.
- Its term is of 5 years after which it gets
- Members retire when their term ends.
- To become a member, the candidate must have minimum age of 25 years.
- There are 182 members in the Vidhan Sabha of Gujarat.
- It is also called the Upper House or Vidhan Parishad.
- It is a permanent House i.e. it does not get dissolved.
- Its members get elected for a term of 6 years
- Its 1/3rd members retire every 2 years.
- To become a member, the candidate must have minimum age of 30 years.
- Gujarat does not have Vidhan Parishad and so there is no question of number of members.
Explain the objectives of institutions of Local Self-Governance under Panchayati Raj.
(a) Objectives of Institutions of Local Self-Governance:
- Under Panchayati Raj, the powers of the Central Government are decentralised up to the village level. Each village then would be responsible for its own welfare.
- The term for such a vision was Swaraj or say ‘Self-governance’ or ‘self-rule’.
- Owing to this vision, institutions of Local Self-Governance have emerged at the local level.
- Based on the geographical extent, the responsibility and functions of the government are divided into such local organisation for administrative efficiency.
- Under this form of administration, the local people elect representatives from their village town or city who then looks after the welfare of those regions.
- People of village elect representatives among themselves as Panchayat.
- Every Panchayat elects a President or Sarpanch.
- The Sarpanch occupies the highest and most important position in Gram Panchayat system.
- The administrative head of the village is called the ‘Talati-cum-Minister’. He handles
the administration of the Panchayat.
- The village in which the election takes place unanimously and the Sarpanch also gets elected (i.e., with consent of all) is honoured as ‘Samras Gram4. The village is also gifted with a prize for such an achievement.
(b) Panchayat Samiti i.e., Taluka Panchayat (at Taluka level):
- The Panchayat Samiti is the middle (or second) tier of the Panchayati Raj.
- All the villages that fall under a Taluka are the part of Panchayat Samiti.
- The President of the Panchayat Samiti is called the ‘Pradhan’ or President.
- The head of the administrative wing is called Taluka Development Officer (TDO).
(c) Zilla Parishad i.e., District Panchayat (at District level).
- The Zilla Parishad stands at the apex of the three-tier structure of the Panchayati Raj system.
- There is a Chief Executive Officer of the District Panchayat. Also, there are several chairmen of various committees of the District Panchayat.
- The District Development Officer (DDO) is the administrative head.
- The main office of the district panchayat is situated at the district headquarters.
- All these three tiers of panchayat form a strong administrative structure.
- Each tier is mutually connected from top to bottom.
- For the success of local developmental tasks, government schemes and welfare-oriented programmes, the three tiers’ Institutions of Local Self-Governance are provided with required funds and resources.