This GSEB Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 6 Human Resources covers all the important topics and concepts as mentioned in the chapter.
Human Resources Class 8 GSEB Notes
→ Collecting and cataloguing information about people living in a country or any particular region of the country is known as the ‘Census’. It is done every 10 years under the regulation of the central government. In our country, the last census was carried out in the year 2011 (the 7th time).
→ Human resource is the human capital of our country. Development of the country depends not only on the area of the country or natural resources but it is also based upon the quality of human resource that contribute a lot to economic development.
→ A census is done for the five-year development plans of the country with regard to necessities like food, water, housing facilities, industries, electricity, employment, education, conservation, etc.. It is important to have a census.
→ Now-a-days, the forest department keeps a record of endangered animals, birds and plants. Even domestic animals are counted.
→ The land area of India is 32,87,263 sq km, which forms 2.42 % of the total land area of the world. As far as area is concerned India stands 7th in the world. However, in terms of population, India is 2nd after China. More than 16 % of the world’s population resides in India.
→ Qualitative human population is also called ‘human resource’. The quality of human resource depends on education and intelligence. Skilled citizens like doctors, engineers, sportsmen, industrialists, farmers and other responsible citizens are human resource. Our youth and children are potential resources.
→ During the last century, especially in the last five decades, the rate of population growth is a cause of worry. In 2001, the population of India was 102.87 crores which has increased to 121.01 crores in 2011. Various schemes have been launched to bring control population growth. Consequently, rate of population growth has declined by 1.7%; and this is a noteworthy fact.
→ Reasons for population growth:
1. Immigration for trade, education or settling abroad.
2. Lower Death Rate: Two centuries ago the rate of population growth was less, since infant mortality rate and death rate of pregnant women was high. Diseases like cholera, plague, TB (tuberculosis), typhoid, etc. were incurable. People succumbed to famines, etc.. Because the modes of transport and roads were improper, people could not get proper medical facilities. This scenario has completely changed today. Nutritious food is easily available, communicable diseases are under control due to advanced medical treatment and vaccination programmes. Pre-and-post-disaster management has improved and affected people are rehabilitated faster. So death rate has decreased and population growth rate has increased.
3. Increased Life-expectancy: Moreover, the standard of living has improved and so the average life span which was about 40-41 years in 1920 has increased to 63 – 64 years. However, birth rate has not decreased noticeably. The factors responsible for increase in birth rate are: illiteracy, superstitions, orthodox thinking, social customs wherein a male child is considered important, child marriage, poverty, widow re-marriage, negative attitude towards the idea of a small family, etc.
→ Rising population causes administrative problems, as well as problems of shortage of food, water, housing, environmental pollution, conservation, employment, traffic congestion, etc.. Therefore, schemes, policies, etc. are made to deal with such problems.
→ Population Density: The average number of people living in per sq km of area is known as population density of that area. Population density is associated with social, economic and geographical conditions. It is high in the fertile alluvial plains of rivers, deltas, industrial areas, etc.. Population density is low in deserts, mountainous and forest regions due to unfavourable conditions.
→ Density of Population is affected by various geographical factors like altitude, climate, weather, topography, types of crops, availability of water, minerals, energy sources, etc.. Educational facilities, health and transport facilities, employment opportunities, urbanization, etc. also affect population density.
→ The five Indian states that have the maximum population density are-Bihar, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana.
→ The five districts of Gujarat that have the highest density of population are – Surat, Ahmedabad, An and, Gandhinagar and Navsari.
→ The five most highly populated states of India are – Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.
→ The five most highly populated districts of Gujarat are – Ahmedabad, Surat, Vadodara, Rajkot and Banaskantha,
→ The five least populated states and Union Territories of India are – Lakshadweep Islands, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Sikkim.
→ Birth Rate: The total live births in one year per 1000 persons in a given area is known as ‘birth rate’. Indians have been exercising family planning for quite a number of years now; therefore, the birth rate has been consistently declining. However, in rural areas family planning is much lesser due to lack of education, health facilities, poverty, unemployment and ignorance about the means of birth control. So the birth rate is still high in villages.
→ Death Rate: The number of deaths in one year per 1000 persons in a specific area is termed as ‘death rate’. Since whatever is born must die, death rate can never be zero. However, various researches, medical treatments, medicines, vaccination, control over diseases, new technology, etc. have brought down the death rate.
→ Migration: When humans shift from one place for their livelihood or for their progress, it is known as ‘migration’. Rural population is attracted to urban areas for employment, education, business, industries, etc. Currently 62% of Gujarat’s population resides in rural areas and 38 % live in urban areas.
→ Population Composition: The classification of total population into various categories is called ‘population composition.’ Categorization is done according to male-female, age, rural-urban, religion, linguistic groups, etc.
→ Age Structure: The population of the nation comprises of three age groups:
- Children – 0 to 14-year-olds
- Adults-15 to 59-year-olds and
- Senior citizens – those aged 60 years or above. According to 2001 census-35 to 40% population is below 18 years, 7 to 10% is senior citizens and the rest is adults. Japan has the highest proportion of senior citizens.
→ Sex Ratio: Sex ratio can be defined as the number of females per 1000 males. Sex ratio has been consistently reducing since 1951. According to the 2011 census there were 940 females for every 1000 males in India. The sex ratio of Gujarat is 918. Kerala has the highest sex ratio (1084) in India.
→ Literacy: An individual who is 6 years old or above and who can read, write and understand any one language is said to be ‘literate’. The literacy rate has been rising consistently in India and this is a positive sign. In 1901 the literacy rate in India was 5.35% and this has increased to 74.04% in 2011. It is highest in Kerala at 93.91 %. In Gujarat the literacy rate is 79.31 %.
→ Occupational Structure: This is divided into two groups:
- Earning population and
- Dependent population. Due to rapid industrialization in India, the earning population is constantly increasing.
→ Changes in the population composition: Changes in the population composition are of two types:
- Quantitative Change: Rise and fall in population count is known as quantitative change. Reasons:
- Population growth and
- Qualitative Change: The changes observed in health and education indicate qualitative change. This change alters behaviour, lifestyle and living standards. The main reasons responsible for these changes are dedication, hard work, patriotism, enthusiasm, courage, etc. These factors bring about socio-cultural changes.
→ Religious Groups: India is a secular nation. Hindus are in majority followed by Muslims, Christians, \ Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains and Parsis, etc..
→ Linguistic Groups: India is a country that is known for ‘Unity in Diversity’. Our constitution has recognized 22 languages. Hindi and English are the official languages respectively. States have been formed on the basis of languages.
→ Health: The ‘health of a person’ can be defined as the physical, mental, emotional, social, economic and spiritual well-being of a person. The best level of health helps in fostering the process of national development.
→ National Population Policy: When human resources of a nation are educated, trained, healthy and strong they can foster development of that nation. Carefully planned use of human resources builds the foundation for development of the nation. To keep pace with developed nations it is very important to have good quality human resources and eliminate factors that undermine this resource. Over population is one of the biggest factors which hampers development. To ensure that population does not rise suddenly, to see, that resources are used properly and to see that the nation develops properly our government has decided on a National Population Policy. As part of the National Population Policy, various programmes like nutritious food, pre- and-postnatal care of mother and child, providing clean drinking water, school health programmes, safeguarding children’s rights, etc. must reach the grass root level. Each 5-year plan is made keeping the National Population Policy in focus. We too must resolve to contribute as committed and responsible citizens to the progress of the nation.