Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 11 Indian Judiciary summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
Indian Judiciary Class 9 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 16
Indian Judiciary Class 9 GSEB Notes
→ The Judiciary, which is the independent, statutory and impartial organ of the government.
→ The Consitution of India provides for a systematic, organised and uniform judicial system throughout India.
→ The Indian judiciary system is in the form of a pyramid hierarchy.
→ We have established a uniform judiciary and in it at the top most level there is a Supreme Court at the middle level there are High Courts under their jurisdiction are the District Courts at the district level and at the taluka level there are Local and Special Court
- Supreme Court is at the apex of the Indian Judiciary. It is situated in New Delhi.
- All the civil and criminal courts of India have to work under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
- The Supreme Court consists of one Chief Justice and 30 additional judges.
- The chief justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President of India.
- The number of judges in the Supreme Court is decided by the Parliament
A person who is appointed as judge of the Supreme Court should be
- A citizen of India.
- Should have provided a service of at least 5 years as a judge in any one of the High Court of India or
- Should have an experience of at least 10 years as an advocate in any of the High Court of India or
- Should be a distinguished judge or a famous jurist as per the opinion of the President or
- Should not be more than 65 years of age.
→ The judges can be removed from their posts and power if they are found to be guilty of incapability, misconduct or inefficiency.
→ This removal is in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and is carried out through “Impeachment Motion in Parliament.”
→ Jurisdiction of Supreme Court can be divided into Original Jurisdiction, Appellate Jurisdiction and Advisory Jurisdiction.
→ Supreme Court can resolve the disputes between the state and the citizens as well as disputes between the state and the citizens as well as disputes between Union and the State Govserment.
→ The judgment of the Supreme Court is final and it cannot be challenged anywhere.
Appellate Jurisdiction: three types of appeals can be made in the Supreme Court under the Appellate Jurisdiction
- Cases of Constitutional interpretation
- Appeal against the civil case
- Appeal against criminal cases.
→ One of the key positions in the continuous hierarchical pyramid of the Indian Judiciary is occupied
at the state level by the High Courts.
→ The Constitution provides one High Court for every state. There are 25 High Court in India presently.
→ In India there is one common High Court for the states of Punjab, Haryana and Chandigarh. Similarly under the jurisdiction of the High Court of Assam (Gauhati High Court) falls the states of Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh.
→ The Chief Justice of the High Court is appointed by the President.
→ The age limit of judges of the High Court is 62 years.
→ The Jurisdiction of the High Court: The power and functions of the High Court can be divided into the following three jurisdictions :
- Original Jurisdiction
- Appellate Jurisdiction
- Administrative Jurisdiction
→ The High Court of Gujarat is located on the Sarkhej-Gandhinagar Highway, Sola, Ahmedabad.
Subordinate Courts :
→ A person being appointed as a District Judge should be a citizen of India, should possess a practice as an advocate for at least seven years.
→ The judge who handles the civil suites is called as the District Judge and the Judge who handles the criminal cases is called a Sessions Judge.
→ All the civil suits of rupee one lakh or more either by the Government or against the government are carried out in the district civil courts.
→ The criminal courts include Session Court, First Class Judicial Magistrate Court, Second Class Judicial Magistrate Court, Mamlatdar and Executive Magistrate Court.
→ These courts have a power to give punishment of imprisonment ranging from 3 to 10 years and a penalty up to rupees 5000 or more. In case of a murder, the court can give capital punishment, life time imprisonment and life sentence.
→ Apart from these in a district there are small cause court and family court too.
→ There is Revenue Court and for the disputes of the laborers there is a Labour Court along with other Tribunals.
For the protection of consumer’s right, ‘Consumer’s Rights Protection Forum’.
→ In each district there is a ‘Fast Track Court’ with an objective to run a case faster. For hearing the cases of POTA, there are POTA Courts in Gujarat. All these courts have gathered importance by decentralising their administration and function independently, firmly and lawfully. People have started taking all the benefits and have become aware.
- Gujarat state is first to start Lok Adalats to provide speedy and economical justice to the poor, weak and exploited section of the society.
- The cases of public welfare, the questions of public welfare or important problems pertaining to public welfare can be written on a simple post card or an ordinary letter to the Supreme Court.
- In the past, the Supreme Court has treated such matters as petitions and has given trend setting judgments. This has proved the vigilance of the Judiciary in the public.